Nickel ore refers to the naturally occurring rocks or minerals that contain significant amounts of nickel. Nickel is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white metal with a relatively high melting point and excellent corrosion resistance. Nickel is commonly found in the Earth’s crust, but it is typically extracted from its ore minerals through mining and processing.
- Laterite deposits: These are the most common type of nickel ore deposits and are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions, such as Indonesia, the Philippines, and New Caledonia. Laterite deposits are formed by the weathering and leaching of ultramafic rocks, resulting in the accumulation of nickel-rich limonite and saprolite ores.
- Sulfide deposits: These are typically found in Canada, Russia, and Australia, and are associated with ultramafic or mafic rocks. Sulfide deposits are formed by the segregation of nickel and other sulfide minerals from a magma during the cooling and solidification of a volcanic or intrusive rock.
- Nickel-cobalt laterite deposits: These are a specialized type of laterite deposit that contain significant amounts of cobalt in addition to nickel. They are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions, such as New Caledonia, the Philippines, and Cuba.
- Magmatic sulfide deposits: These are typically found in large layered intrusions, such as the Bushveld Complex in South Africa and the Sudbury Basin in Canada. Magmatic sulfide deposits are formed by the settling and crystallization of sulfide minerals from a magma chamber during the formation of igneous rocks.
The mining and processing of nickel ores involve various techniques, such as open-pit or underground mining, concentration, smelting, and refining, depending on the type of deposit and the desired nickel products. Nickel ores are processed to extract nickel and produce nickel-containing products, such as nickel matte, nickel pig iron, ferronickel, and nickel chemicals, which are used in various industrial applications, including stainless steel production, battery materials, and other specialty alloys.
It’s important to note that the extraction and processing of nickel ores can have environmental and social impacts, such as habitat destruction, water pollution, air emissions, and potential impacts on local communities. Responsible mining and processing practices, including environmental management, social engagement, and sustainability considerations, are increasingly gaining importance in the nickel mining industry.
Sure! Here are some properties of nickel:
- Physical properties:
- Appearance: Nickel is a silvery-white, lustrous metal with a metallic sheen.
- Density: Nickel has a density of 8.908 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³), making it a relatively heavy metal.
- Melting point: The melting point of nickel is 1,455 degrees Celsius (2,651 degrees Fahrenheit), making it a high-melting metal.
- Boiling point: The boiling point of nickel is 2,913 degrees Celsius (5,275 degrees Fahrenheit), which is also relatively high.
- Hardness: Nickel is a relatively hard metal, with a Mohs hardness of 4 on the scale of mineral hardness.
- Chemical properties:
- Atomic number: Nickel has an atomic number of 28, which means it has 28 protons in its nucleus.
- Chemical symbol: The chemical symbol of nickel is Ni, derived from its Latin name “nix,” which means “snow,” due to its bright, silvery-white appearance.
- Chemical reactivity: Nickel is a fairly unreactive metal, but it can slowly tarnish and oxidize in air, forming a thin oxide layer on its surface. It is resistant to most acids and alkalis, but can dissolve in certain acids, such as nitric acid.
- Magnetic properties: Nickel is ferromagnetic, meaning it can be magnetized, and it has a high magnetic permeability, which makes it useful in various magnetic applications.
- Other properties:
- Electrical conductivity: Nickel is a good conductor of electricity and is used in electrical and electronic applications.
- Corrosion resistance: Nickel has excellent corrosion resistance, making it suitable for use in various corrosive environments, such as in stainless steel, where it provides protection against rust and corrosion.
- Alloying properties: Nickel is often alloyed with other metals, such as chromium, iron, and copper, to form alloys with specific properties, such as increased strength, improved corrosion resistance, or enhanced heat resistance.
These are some of the main properties of nickel, which make it a valuable and versatile metal used in various industrial applications.
Nickel ore formation
Nickel ore deposits are formed through various geological processes and conditions. The formation of nickel ore can involve several stages and mechanisms, depending on the deposit type. Some of the common processes and conditions involved in the formation of nickel ore deposits include:
- Magmatic processes: Some nickel ore deposits form as a result of magmatic processes, where nickel-rich magma from the Earth’s mantle intrudes into the crust and cools to form igneous rocks. The nickel can be concentrated in certain minerals, such as sulfides, which are immiscible with the magma and segregate to form discrete ore bodies. This can occur in ultramafic or mafic rocks, which are rich in iron and magnesium, and commonly associated with nickel mineralization.
- Hydrothermal processes: Hydrothermal processes can also contribute to the formation of nickel ore deposits. In some cases, hot fluids carrying nickel and other elements can migrate through rocks and precipitate nickel minerals as veins or disseminations in host rocks. These fluids can be derived from various sources, such as magmatic fluids, meteoric water, or metamorphic fluids, and their interactions with rocks can result in the formation of nickel-rich mineral assemblages.
- Lateritic weathering: Lateritic weathering is a common process in the formation of lateritic nickel deposits, which are widespread in tropical regions. In these deposits, prolonged weathering of ultramafic rocks, such as serpentinized peridotites, can result in the formation of a lateritic soil profile where nickel and other metals are leached from the rock and accumulate in the soil. Over time, the nickel-enriched laterite can undergo processes such as consolidation and lithification, leading to the formation of lateritic nickel ore deposits.
- Sedimentary processes: Nickeliferous sedimentary deposits are another type of nickel ore deposit that can form through sedimentary processes. These deposits can occur in marine or lacustrine environments where nickel-rich sediments accumulate and undergo diagenesis and mineralization processes. Nickel can be sourced from various inputs, such as volcanic ash, hydrothermal fluids, or weathered rocks, and deposited in sedimentary basins to form nickel ore deposits.
- Metamorphic processes: Metamorphic processes can also play a role in the formation of some nickel ore deposits. In certain tectonic settings, such as during regional metamorphism or contact metamorphism, nickel-rich fluids can interact with existing rocks and precipitate nickel minerals in response to changes in temperature, pressure, and fluid composition. This can result in the formation of metamorphosed nickel ore deposits, often associated with other metamorphic minerals.
The specific mechanisms and conditions involved in the formation of nickel ore deposits can vary depending on the deposit type and the geologic setting. Detailed studies of the mineralogy, geochemistry, and structural geology of nickel deposits are often conducted to better understand the formation processes and to identify potential areas for nickel exploration and mining.
Nickel ore deposit types
There are several types of nickel ore deposits, which can be broadly categorized based on their geological characteristics and formation processes. Some of the common types of nickel ore deposits include:
- Magmatic Nickel Sulfide Deposits: These deposits form from the solidification and crystallization of nickel-rich magma from the Earth’s mantle. As the magma cools and solidifies, nickel sulfide minerals, such as pentlandite and pyrrhotite, can separate and accumulate to form ore bodies. Magmatic nickel sulfide deposits are typically associated with ultramafic or mafic rocks, such as komatiites or norites, and are known for their high-grade nickel content.
- Lateritic Nickel Deposits: Lateritic nickel deposits are formed through the weathering of ultramafic rocks, such as serpentinized peridotites, in tropical or subtropical regions. Over time, prolonged weathering processes cause the leaching and accumulation of nickel and other elements in the soil, resulting in the formation of a lateritic soil profile. Lateritic nickel deposits are characterized by their typically low-grade nickel content and are commonly found in countries such as Indonesia and New Caledonia.
- Nickel-Cobalt-Copper Sulfide Deposits: These deposits are typically associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive rocks and are characterized by the presence of nickel, cobalt, and copper sulfide minerals. These deposits can occur as disseminated sulfides in the host rock or as discrete ore bodies, and are often found in association with other valuable minerals, such as platinum-group elements (PGEs).
- Nickel-Cobalt Laterite Deposits: These deposits are a type of lateritic nickel deposit, but with higher cobalt content compared to other lateritic deposits. They are characterized by the presence of cobalt-rich minerals, such as cobaltian pyrite and cobaltian pentlandite, in addition to nickel-rich minerals. Nickel-cobalt laterite deposits are typically found in tropical or subtropical regions and are known for their cobalt resources, which are used in various high-tech applications, including electric vehicle batteries.
- Nickeliferous Sedimentary Deposits: These deposits form from the accumulation and diagenesis of nickel-rich sediments in marine or lacustrine environments. They can occur as disseminated sulfides in sedimentary rocks, such as black shales or claystones, or as concentrated nickel-rich layers within sedimentary sequences. Nickeliferous sedimentary deposits are typically lower in grade compared to magmatic nickel sulfide deposits, but they can still be economically viable sources of nickel.
- Metamorphic Nickel Deposits: These deposits form through metamorphic processes, where existing rocks are subjected to changes in temperature, pressure, and fluid composition, leading to the formation of nickel-bearing minerals. Metamorphic nickel deposits can occur in a variety of geological settings, such as regional metamorphism or contact metamorphism, and are often associated with other metamorphic minerals.
These are some of the main types of nickel ore deposits, each with its own unique geological characteristics and formation processes. Understanding the different types of nickel ore deposits is crucial for exploration and mining activities, as it helps in identifying potential areas for nickel resources and developing appropriate extraction methods.
Mineralogy of nickel ore deposits
The mineralogy of nickel ore deposits can vary depending on the type of deposit and the specific geological conditions under which they formed. However, some common nickel-bearing minerals found in nickel ore deposits include:
Pentlandite: Pentlandite (Fe,Ni)9S8 is the most important nickel-bearing sulfide mineral and is commonly found in magmatic nickel sulfide deposits. It is a silvery-bronze colored mineral that typically occurs in massive, disseminated, or vein-like forms within ultramafic or mafic rocks.
Pyrrhotite: Pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS) is another important nickel-bearing sulfide mineral commonly found in nickel ore deposits. It has a brassy-yellow to bronze color and can occur as disseminated grains or in vein-like forms within ultramafic or mafic rocks.
Millerite: Millerite (NiS) is a nickel sulfide mineral that occurs as bright metallic yellow-green crystals or as disseminated grains in some nickel ore deposits. It is typically associated with late-stage mineralization and can be found in both magmatic nickel sulfide and nickel-cobalt-copper sulfide deposits.
Garnierite: Garnierite is a nickel magnesium silicate mineral that is commonly found in lateritic nickel deposits. It has a green color and typically occurs as botryoidal or platy masses in the weathered zone of ultramafic rocks.
Limonite: Limonite is a hydrous iron oxide mineral that is commonly associated with lateritic nickel deposits. It forms as a weathering product of ultramafic rocks and can contain significant amounts of nickel as well as iron.
Nickeliferous Serpentine: Nickeliferous serpentine is a group of minerals that are rich in both nickel and magnesium, and can occur in some nickel ore deposits, particularly in lateritic nickel deposits. These minerals are typically green or brown in color and form as alteration products of ultramafic rocks.
Chlorite: Chlorite is a common green colored mineral that can be found in some nickel ore deposits. It is a hydrous silicate mineral that forms as an alteration product of ultramafic rocks and can contain trace amounts of nickel.
Cobalt-bearing minerals: Some nickel ore deposits, such as nickel-cobalt-copper sulfide and nickel-cobalt laterite deposits, can also contain cobalt-bearing minerals, such as cobaltite, cobaltian pentlandite, and cobaltian pyrite, in addition to nickel-bearing minerals.
It’s important to note that the mineralogy of nickel ore deposits can vary widely depending on the specific deposit and geological conditions, and different nickel deposits may contain a combination of these minerals or other nickel-bearing minerals not listed above. Detailed mineralogical studies and analysis are typically conducted during exploration and mining operations to accurately identify the mineralogy of nickel ore deposits, which can help in understanding their economic potential and developing appropriate extraction methods.
Geochemical signatures of nickel ore deposits
Geochemical signatures of nickel ore deposits refer to the unique chemical characteristics or compositions that can be observed in rocks, minerals, soils, or other materials associated with nickel ore deposits. These signatures can provide important information about the origin, formation, and potential economic value of the nickel deposit. Some common geochemical signatures of nickel ore deposits include:
- High nickel content: Nickel ore deposits typically exhibit high concentrations of nickel in the form of various minerals such as pentlandite, pyrrhotite, or garnierite. Geochemical analysis of rock or mineral samples from a prospective deposit can reveal elevated nickel concentrations above background levels, which can be indicative of a potential nickel deposit.
- Elevated sulfur content: Nickel ore deposits are often associated with sulfide minerals, such as pentlandite and pyrrhotite, which contain significant amounts of sulfur. Geochemical analysis of samples from a prospective deposit may show elevated sulfur concentrations, particularly in rocks or minerals with a sulfide mineralogy, which can be indicative of a nickel sulfide deposit.
- Nickel-to-cobalt ratios: Some nickel deposits, particularly nickel-cobalt laterite deposits, exhibit distinct nickel-to-cobalt ratios that can be used as geochemical signatures. For example, higher nickel-to-cobalt ratios in soil or rock samples may suggest a lateritic nickel deposit, while lower ratios may indicate a different type of deposit.
- Trace element signatures: Geochemical analysis of samples from nickel ore deposits can also reveal distinct signatures of trace elements associated with nickel mineralization. For example, elements such as copper, cobalt, platinum-group elements (PGEs), and chromium are commonly associated with nickel deposits and can exhibit elevated concentrations in samples from prospective deposits.
- Stable isotopes: Stable isotopes of certain elements, such as sulfur and oxygen, can also exhibit distinctive signatures in nickel ore deposits. For example, stable isotopic compositions of sulfur in sulfide minerals can provide information about the source of sulfur in the deposit and the processes involved in its formation.
- Weathering signatures: In lateritic nickel deposits, which form through weathering of ultramafic rocks, geochemical signatures associated with weathering processes can be observed. These may include depletion of certain elements like magnesium, calcium, and silica, and enrichment of other elements like nickel, cobalt, and aluminum in the weathered profiles.
It’s important to note that geochemical signatures of nickel ore deposits can vary depending on the specific type of deposit, geological conditions, and the stage of mineralization. Detailed geochemical analysis, combined with other geological, geophysical, and geochemical data, is typically used to interpret and understand the geochemical signatures of nickel ore deposits and aid in exploration and evaluation efforts.
Structural controls on nickel ore deposits
Structural controls on nickel ore deposits refer to the geological structures or features that influence the formation, localization, and distribution of nickel deposits. These structural controls can play a significant role in the formation of nickel ore deposits and can provide important clues for exploration and targeting efforts. Some common structural controls on nickel ore deposits include:
- Faults and fractures: Faults and fractures are geological structures that can control the localization and movement of fluids, including those responsible for transporting and depositing nickel mineralization. Faults can act as conduits for hydrothermal fluids, allowing them to penetrate into the Earth’s crust and interact with nickel-bearing rocks, leading to the precipitation of nickel minerals. Fractures can also provide pathways for the migration of nickel-rich fluids and facilitate the formation of ore deposits.
- Folds: Folds are curved or bent rock layers that can create traps or structural lows where nickel ore deposits may accumulate. Folds can create favorable structural settings, such as anticlines or synclines, where nickel-bearing fluids can be trapped and concentrate, leading to the formation of nickel deposits.
- Shear zones: Shear zones are zones of intense deformation where rocks are subjected to extreme pressure and strain. Shear zones can create pathways for fluid migration and can be important in the formation of some nickel ore deposits. Shear zones can deform and alter the host rocks, creating favorable sites for the deposition of nickel minerals.
- Intrusions: Intrusions are bodies of igneous rocks that are emplaced into pre-existing rocks. Intrusive rocks can be associated with the formation of nickel ore deposits, particularly those of magmatic origin, such as nickel-copper sulfide deposits. Intrusive rocks can provide a source of nickel and other mineralizing fluids, and their emplacement can create favorable structural settings for the accumulation of nickel mineralization.
- Ultramafic rocks: Ultramafic rocks, which are rich in magnesium and iron, are the primary host rocks for many nickel ore deposits. The presence of ultramafic rocks, such as dunite, peridotite, or komatiite, can be a critical structural control on the formation of nickel deposits. These rocks can provide a source of nickel and other elements, and their specific mineralogical and geochemical characteristics can influence the formation and localization of nickel mineralization.
- Crustal-scale tectonic features: Crustal-scale tectonic features, such as rift zones, subduction zones, or collisional boundaries, can also play a role in the formation of nickel ore deposits. These tectonic features can create favorable structural settings, such as mantle-crust interfaces or areas of crustal thickening, where nickel mineralization can occur.
It’s important to note that the structural controls on nickel ore deposits can vary depending on the specific type of deposit, geological setting, and the stage of mineralization. Detailed structural mapping, combined with other geological, geophysical, and geochemical data, is typically used to interpret and understand the structural controls on nickel ore deposits and aid in exploration and evaluation efforts.
Exploration methods for nickel ores
Exploration for nickel ores typically involves a combination of geological, geophysical, and geochemical methods to identify prospective areas for further investigation. Some common exploration methods for nickel ores include:
- Geological mapping: Geological mapping involves the systematic survey and mapping of rock formations, structures, and mineral assemblages in the field. It helps to identify the distribution, nature, and relationships of rocks and minerals in the target area, and can provide important clues about the potential for nickel mineralization.
- Geochemical sampling: Geochemical sampling involves collecting and analyzing rock, soil, sediment, or water samples to determine their elemental composition, including the presence of nickel and other associated elements. Geochemical sampling can help identify anomalous concentrations of nickel and associated elements, which can indicate the presence of nickel mineralization. Various methods, such as soil sampling, rock chip sampling, and stream sediment sampling, can be used depending on the specific geology and target deposit type.
- Geophysical surveys: Geophysical surveys use different techniques to measure the physical properties of rocks and subsurface structures, which can provide information about the presence of nickel mineralization. Some common geophysical methods used in nickel exploration include electromagnetic (EM) surveys, magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, and induced polarization (IP) surveys. These methods can help identify subsurface features, such as conductive bodies or magnetic anomalies, that may be indicative of nickel mineralization.
- Drilling: Drilling involves the extraction of rock cores or samples from the subsurface to obtain direct information about the geology and mineralization of the target area. Diamond drilling is commonly used in nickel exploration to obtain high-quality core samples for detailed geological, mineralogical, and geochemical analysis. Drilling can help confirm the presence of nickel mineralization, determine its grade and thickness, and provide valuable data for resource estimation.
- Remote sensing: Remote sensing techniques use airborne or satellite-based sensors to collect data about the Earth’s surface without direct contact. Remote sensing can be used to identify geological and structural features associated with nickel deposits, such as ultramafic rock formations, fault zones, or alteration patterns. Multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data can provide valuable information about the mineralogical and chemical composition of rocks, which can aid in identifying prospective areas for further exploration.
- Geologic modeling: Geologic modeling involves the integration of various data sets, such as geological, geochemical, and geophysical data, into a three-dimensional (3D) model of the subsurface geology. Geologic modeling can help visualize and interpret the spatial distribution of rocks, structures, and mineralization, and can assist in identifying favorable areas for nickel mineralization. Advanced software and techniques, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and 3D modeling software, are commonly used in geologic modeling.
- Field mapping and prospecting: Field mapping and prospecting involve detailed examination and sampling of rocks, minerals, and structures in the field to identify indicators of nickel mineralization. Field mapping and prospecting can help identify specific geological features, such as alteration patterns, sulfide mineral occurrences, or ultramafic rock outcrops, which can be indicative of nickel mineralization.
It’s important to note that exploration methods for nickel ores can vary depending on the type of deposit being targeted, the geological setting, and the stage of exploration. A combination of multiple methods and a thorough understanding of the geology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of nickel deposits are typically used to increase the chances of success in exploration efforts.
Mining and processing of nickel ores
Mining and processing of nickel ores typically involves several steps, including:
- Exploration: As discussed earlier, exploration methods are used to identify prospective areas for nickel mineralization. This involves geological mapping, geochemical sampling, geophysical surveys, and other techniques to identify areas with potential for economic nickel deposits.
- Mine planning and development: Once a prospective deposit is identified, mine planning and development activities begin. This involves determining the optimal location and layout of the mine, obtaining necessary permits and licenses, and developing infrastructure such as roads, power supply, and water management systems.
- Mining: The actual extraction of nickel ore from the deposit is done through mining operations. There are different methods of mining depending on the type of deposit, location, and economic factors. Common mining methods for nickel ores include open-pit mining, underground mining, and laterite mining.
- Open-pit mining: In open-pit mining, the nickel ore deposit is accessed by removing overlying soil, vegetation, and rocks to expose the ore body. The ore is then extracted using heavy machinery, such as excavators, loaders, and haul trucks. This method is typically used for shallow, near-surface nickel deposits.
- Underground mining: In underground mining, tunnels or shafts are dug into the ground to access the nickel ore deposit, which is typically deeper and more difficult to reach. Underground mining methods can include shaft mining, drift mining, and slope mining, depending on the specific deposit and geological conditions.
- Laterite mining: Laterite deposits, which are a type of nickel ore, are typically mined using open-pit methods. Laterite deposits are usually located in tropical or subtropical areas and are characterized by a weathered, oxidized layer on top of a partially or completely unweathered nickel-bearing rock layer. The overlying weathered layer is usually removed to access the unweathered ore layer.
- Ore processing: Once the nickel ore is extracted from the mine, it is processed to extract nickel and other valuable metals. The exact processing methods can vary depending on the type of ore and the desired end products, but typically involve the following steps:
- Crushing and grinding: The nickel ore is crushed and ground into small particles to increase its surface area, allowing for better extraction of nickel and other valuable minerals.
- Froth flotation: Froth flotation is a common method used to separate valuable minerals, including nickel, from the ore. The crushed and ground ore is mixed with water and chemicals, and air bubbles are introduced. The valuable minerals attach to the air bubbles and rise to the surface as a froth, which is then collected and further processed to obtain nickel concentrate.
- Smelting: Smelting is the process of melting the nickel concentrate to separate nickel from other impurities. High temperatures and chemical reactions are used to separate the nickel from other elements, resulting in a nickel-rich matte or crude nickel product.
- Refining: The crude nickel product from smelting is further refined to remove impurities and obtain high-purity nickel. Refining methods can include electrolysis, solvent extraction, and other techniques depending on the desired nickel product and quality requirements.
- Environmental and social considerations: Mining and processing of nickel ores can have significant environmental and social impacts. These can include deforestation, habitat destruction, soil erosion, water pollution, air pollution, and displacement of local communities. Proper environmental and social management practices, including mine reclamation, waste management, and community engagement, are important aspects of responsible nickel mining and processing.
It’s worth noting that the specific mining and processing methods for nickel ores can vary depending on the deposit type, location, and technological advancements. Advances in mining and processing technologies continue to evolve, and environmental and social considerations are increasingly being integrated into mining operations to ensure sustainable and responsible extraction of
Nickel market and uses
The nickel market is a global market with diverse applications and uses. Nickel is a versatile metal with excellent corrosion resistance, high strength, and durability, making it a crucial component in various industrial sectors. Some of the key aspects of the nickel market and its uses include:
- Stainless steel production: Stainless steel is a major consumer of nickel, accounting for around 70-80% of global nickel consumption. Nickel is alloyed with chromium and other elements to create stainless steel, which is widely used in construction, automotive, aerospace, food processing, and other industries due to its corrosion resistance and strength.
- Battery materials: Nickel is an important component in the production of rechargeable batteries, particularly in lithium-ion batteries, which are widely used in electric vehicles (EVs), consumer electronics, and grid storage systems. Nickel-containing batteries are known for their high energy density and long cycle life, making them essential for the growing demand for electric mobility and energy storage.
- Other industrial applications: Nickel is used in a range of other industrial applications, including as a catalyst in chemical processes, as a plating material in electroplating, in electrical and electronics components, as an alloying element in various metal alloys, and in the aerospace and defense industries.
- Emerging applications: Nickel is also being researched and developed for emerging applications, such as in hydrogen production and fuel cells, as a key material for 3D printing, and in the production of specialty alloys for high-performance applications.
- Global demand and supply: The demand for nickel is primarily driven by stainless steel production and the growing demand for electric vehicles and energy storage. The major nickel-producing countries are Indonesia, the Philippines, Russia, and Canada, with other countries also contributing to global production. The supply of nickel can be influenced by factors such as mining production, geopolitical factors, environmental regulations, and market demand.
- Price trends: Nickel prices are subject to fluctuations due to various factors, including supply and demand dynamics, macroeconomic factors, technological advancements, trade policies, and geopolitical events. Nickel prices can impact the profitability of nickel producers, the cost of raw materials for end-users, and investment decisions in the nickel industry.
- Sustainability and ESG considerations: Environmental, social, and governance (ESG) considerations are becoming increasingly important in the nickel market. Sustainable and responsible nickel production practices, including environmental management, social engagement, labor practices, and governance, are gaining more attention from stakeholders, including investors, customers, and consumers.
In conclusion, the nickel market is a global market with diverse applications and uses, primarily driven by stainless steel production and the growing demand for electric vehicles and energy storage. Nickel prices are subject to fluctuations, and sustainability and ESG considerations are gaining prominence in the industry.
- Geological Society of America (GSA) (https://www.geosociety.org/)
- Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (SME) (https://www.smenet.org/)
- United States Geological Survey (USGS) (https://www.usgs.gov/)
- Nickel Institute (https://nickelinstitute.org/)
- International Nickel Study Group (INSG) (https://www.insg.org/)
- Academic journals such as Ore Geology Reviews, Economic Geology, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, and Minerals.