Ore-bearing hydrothermal fluids are fluids that are enriched in minerals and metals, and play an important role in the formation of many types of mineral deposits. These fluids are typically hot and mineral-rich, and are often associated with igneous activity, such as volcanism or intrusions. The fluids can originate from a variety of sources, including magmatic fluids, metamorphic fluids, or meteoric fluids.

When these fluids move through rocks, they can cause changes in the rocks, such as the introduction of new minerals, alteration of existing minerals, and the creation of new structures, such as veins or breccias. As the fluids move through the rock, they can deposit minerals and metals along the way, resulting in the formation of ore deposits.

The exact mechanism by which these fluids transport and deposit minerals is complex and not fully understood. However, it is thought that the fluids can dissolve minerals from the surrounding rocks, and then transport them through fractures and pore spaces in the rock. As the fluids cool, the minerals can precipitate out of the fluid and form deposits.

The composition of the hydrothermal fluids can vary widely depending on their source, and can contain a variety of elements, including gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and uranium, among others. The presence of these metals can make the deposits economically valuable and important sources of minerals and metals for human use.

What is Fluid?

In geology, a fluid is a substance that can flow and take the shape of its container. Fluids are substances that have no fixed shape and can be either liquid or gas. They are a major component of many geological processes, such as the circulation of the Earth’s mantle, the formation of mineral deposits, and the movement of groundwater in the subsurface. Fluids play an important role in the transport of heat, mass, and energy, and are involved in a wide range of geological phenomena, including hydrothermal systems, volcanism, and tectonic deformation.

Hydrothermal fluid

Hydrothermal fluids are fluids that exist at high temperatures and pressures deep within the Earth’s crust. They are usually aqueous solutions that contain various dissolved substances, including minerals and gases, and can be rich in metals and other elements. Hydrothermal fluids can be generated by a variety of geological processes, including magmatic activity, the heating of groundwater by hot rocks, and the circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust. When these fluids come into contact with cooler rocks or are released to the surface, they can cause the formation of various types of mineral deposits, including gold, silver, copper, and lead-zinc deposits, among others. The study of hydrothermal fluids and their role in mineral deposit formation is an important part of economic geology.

Alteration and Leaching

Alteration and leaching are important geological processes that can lead to the formation of mineral deposits.

Alteration refers to the changes that occur in rocks due to the action of hydrothermal fluids. Hydrothermal fluids, which are superheated, mineral-rich water solutions, can alter the chemical and mineralogical composition of rocks. Alteration can occur through a variety of processes, such as hydration, oxidation, sulfidation, and silicification.

Leaching, on the other hand, is the process of dissolving minerals and other materials from rocks and soils through the action of water. This can occur when groundwater or other fluids percolate through rocks and soils, dissolving minerals and carrying them away. Leaching can be an important process in the formation of certain types of mineral deposits, such as oxide copper deposits and gold deposits.

Alteration and leaching can occur together, and can be important processes in the formation of many types of mineral deposits, particularly those formed by hydrothermal fluids. For example, alteration can lead to the formation of economic minerals through the precipitation of metals in the altered rock, while leaching can concentrate metals and other minerals in certain areas, leading to the formation of ore deposits.

The trinity model of the Au deposits with metallogenic porphyry, quartz vein and tectonically altered rocks of Ciemas, West Java, Indonesia.  From Zhang, Zhengwei & Wu, Chengquan & Yang, XY & Zheng, Chaofei & Yao, Junhua. (2015). zhang zw-ogr-15. (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284392400_zhang_zw-ogr-15)


In geology, precipitation refers to the formation and deposition of minerals from a solution. Precipitation is an important process in the formation of mineral deposits. When fluids carrying dissolved minerals are forced to change their conditions, such as temperature, pressure, or chemical composition, they may become supersaturated and can no longer hold the minerals in solution. The excess minerals then precipitate out of the fluid and form new mineral grains or crystals.

The precipitation process can occur in a variety of settings, including veins, disseminated deposits, and breccias. Precipitation can also occur as a result of hydrothermal alteration, in which minerals are altered by fluids that circulate through rocks. The alteration process can cause minerals to dissolve, become unstable, and reform in new configurations.

In addition to mineral deposits, precipitation can also occur in natural settings such as hot springs, geysers, and mineralized caves.


Types of water

Types of water

There are various types of water that can be associated with mineral deposits, depending on the geological setting. Some of the common types of water that can be encountered in mineral exploration and mining include:

  1. Meteoric water: This is water that originates from precipitation and infiltrates into the ground, eventually reaching the water table.
  2. Groundwater: This is water that occurs below the water table, and it can be found in aquifers or other underground reservoirs.
  3. Surface water: This is water that occurs on the surface of the ground, such as in rivers, lakes, and oceans.
  4. Hydrothermal water: This is hot water that originates from deep within the Earth’s crust, often associated with magmatic and hydrothermal mineral deposits.
  5. Connate water: This is water that is trapped within sedimentary rocks during their formation, and can be encountered during mining.
  6. Seawater: This is the water found in oceans and seas, and can be relevant for some types of mineral deposits that form in marine environments, such as evaporite deposits.

The type of water associated with a mineral deposit can have important implications for its exploration and mining, as well as for environmental considerations.

Black smoker hydrothermal vent at 2,980m depth, Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

Boiling process

Boiling process is a mechanism that can lead to the formation of mineral deposits in hydrothermal systems. When the temperature and pressure of the hydrothermal fluid drop to a certain point, the fluid can undergo boiling, resulting in the formation of steam bubbles. As the steam rises through the remaining hydrothermal fluid, it can carry with it dissolved mineral components, which can then precipitate out of solution as the fluid cools and the pressure decreases further. This can lead to the formation of mineral veins, as well as various types of mineral deposits, including gold and silver deposits, as well as some base metal deposits.

In addition to the precipitation of minerals from hydrothermal fluids due to boiling, other processes can also contribute to the formation of mineral deposits, including cooling, mixing, and reactions with rocks and other materials. The specific processes and conditions that lead to the formation of different types of mineral deposits can vary widely depending on a range of factors, including the type of mineral, the host rocks, and the specific geochemical and geological conditions present in the system.