Extrusive igneous rocks, additionally referred to as volcanic rocks, are fashioned on the crust’s surface due to the partial melting of rocks within the mantle and crust. Extrusive Igneous Rocks are listed below.
Obsidian is an igneous rock that forms when molten rock material cools so rapidly that atoms are unable to arrange themselves into a crystalline structure. It is an amorphous material known as a "mineraloid." The result is a volcanic glass with a smooth uniform texture that breaks with a conchoidal fracture .
Basalt is the most common rock on Earth’s surface. Specimens are black in color and weather to dark green or brown. Basalt is rich in iron and magnesium and is mainly composed of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase. Most specimens are compact, fine-grained, and glassy. They can also be porphyritic, with phenocrysts of olivine, augite, or plagioclase. Holes left by gas bubbles can give basalt a coarsely porous texture.