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A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy. To meet the definition of “mineral” used by most geologists, a substance must meet five requirements:


Coal is a non-clastic sedimentary rock. They are the fossilized remains of plants and are in flammable black and brownish-black tones. Its main element...


Amber is the fossilized hardened resin of trees. The ages of the trees can vary from 1 million to 300 million years. It comes...


Aragonite is a carbonate mineral and its formula is calcium carbonate. It has the same formula as Calcite and Vaterite, but has a different...


A pearl is a hard, shiny object produced in living tissue such as a crustacean mollusk or fossil conulariids. It is generally composed of calcium carbonate and mainly aragonite.


Coral is skeletal material produced by marine animals. Coral is organic and created by living organisms. When coral polyps die, the hardened skeleton remains and this material is used as a gemstone. Most corals are white, but nature can create coral in many other colors, including the popular orange to red forms. Usually its compound is calcium carbonate.


Kaolinite is a clay mineral with chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. It is an important industrial mineral. Rocks rich in kaolinite are called kaolin. Kaolinite, common group of clay minerals that are hydrated aluminum silicates; they contain the main components of kaolin (china clay). The group includes kaolinite, which is chemically similar but amorphous to kaolinite, and its rarer forms, stalagmite and nacrite, halloysite and allophane.


Manganite is a member of oxide minerals with composed of manganese oxide-hydroxide of formula: MnO(OH).A widespread and important ore of manganese. The mineral had been described by a number of different names since 1772, but was finally given its current name, which it owes to its manganese component, in 1827.


Turquoise is a member of phosphate mineral with chemical the formula CuAl6 (PO4)4(OH) 8·4H2O. Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper...


Chrysoberyl is a member of oxide mineral or gemstone with the formula: BeAl2O4.In spite of the similarity in their names, chrysoberyl and beryl are absolutely extraordinary stones, despite the fact that both include beryllium. Chrysoberyl is the third most commonplace herbal stone and is found at 8.5 at the Mohs


Spodumene is a pyroxene member of inosilicate mineral with chemical formula is LiAl(SiO3)2, lithium aluminium. It can also be pink, lilac, or green. Crystals are prismatic, flattened, and typically striated along their length. Gem varieties of the mineral usually exhibit strong pleochroism.


Phlogopite is a member of mica group family of phyllosilicates mineral. Color is a yellow, greenish, or reddish-brown. It is the magnesium endmember of the biotite stable answer series, with the chemical formulation KMg3AlSi3O10 (F, OH) 2.


Beryl is a member of cyclosilicate minerals with composed of beryllium aluminium. Chemical formula: Be3Al2Si6O18. Few people have ever heard of the mineral beryl but almost everyone has heard of its principal gemstone varieties emerald and aquamarine.