Dolomite is a mineral and a rock-forming mineral that is composed of calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg(CO3)2). It is named after the French mineralogist Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu, who first described its properties in the late 18th century. Dolomite is often found in sedimentary rock formations and can occur in a variety of colors, ranging from white to gray, pink, green, or even brown.

Composition: Dolomite is chemically similar to limestone, as both are primarily composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). However, dolomite has an additional magnesium component (MgCO3), which makes it a double carbonate. This magnesium content distinguishes dolomite from limestone.

Formation: Dolomite forms in various geological settings, typically through a process called dolomitization. This process involves the alteration of limestone by magnesium-rich fluids. The magnesium ions replace some of the calcium ions in the mineral structure, leading to the formation of dolomite.

Crystal Structure: Dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. Its crystal structure is similar to that of calcite (a common form of calcium carbonate), but it has alternating layers of calcium and magnesium ions.

Physical Properties: Dolomite is often recognized by its distinctive pinkish or gray color and its relatively high hardness on the Mohs scale, usually ranging from 3.5 to 4. It also often exhibits a pearly to vitreous luster.

Uses: Dolomite has various practical applications in industry and construction. It is used as a source of magnesium and calcium in the production of metals and alloys. It is also crushed and used as a construction material, particularly as a base material for roads, as an aggregate in concrete, and as a filler in various products like paints, plastics, and ceramics.

Geological Importance: Dolomite-bearing rocks can be important indicators for understanding the geological history of an area. Their presence can provide insights into past environmental conditions, such as the composition of ancient seas and the processes that led to their formation.

Health Considerations: While naturally occurring dolomite is generally safe, certain products containing finely ground dolomite, such as dietary supplements and antacids, have raised concerns about potential health risks due to the presence of trace amounts of heavy metals like lead. It’s important to use such products cautiously and follow health guidelines.

In summary, dolomite is a mineral with distinctive characteristics, often formed through geological processes involving the alteration of limestone. Its unique composition and physical properties make it valuable in various industrial applications and as a geological indicator.

Polymorphism & Series: Forms two series, with ankerite and with kutnohorite.

Mineral Group: Dolomite group.

Name: Honors Dieudonne (D´eodat) Sylvain Guy Tancr`ede de Gratet de Dolomieu (1750–1801), French geologist and naturalist, who contributed to early descriptions of the species in dolostone.

Association: Fluorite, barite, calcite, siderite, quartz, metal sulfides (hydrothermal); calcite, celestine, gypsum, quartz (sedimentary); talc, serpentine, magnesite, calcite, magnetite, diopside, tremolite, forsterite, wollastonite (metamorphic); calcite, ankerite, siderite, apatite (carbonatites).

Geological Formation and Occurrence

Dolomite Mineral and a Rock
Dolomite Mineral and a Rock

Dolomite forms through a geological process known as dolomitization, which involves the alteration of pre-existing limestone or lime-rich sedimentary rocks. This process occurs over millions of years and typically involves the interaction of fluids rich in magnesium with the calcium carbonate minerals in the rock. Here’s a more detailed explanation of the geological formation and occurrence of dolomite:

  1. Source of Magnesium-Rich Fluids: The process of dolomitization requires a source of magnesium-rich fluids. These fluids can come from a variety of sources, including seawater, groundwater, or hydrothermal solutions. As these magnesium-rich fluids circulate through the rock, they interact with the calcium carbonate minerals.
  2. Replacement of Calcium with Magnesium: In dolomitization, magnesium ions (Mg2+) replace some of the calcium ions (Ca2+) within the calcium carbonate mineral structure. This substitution alters the mineral composition from pure calcium carbonate (calcite) to a combination of calcium magnesium carbonate (dolomite). The process of ion substitution takes place over long periods of time.
  3. Crystal Structure Changes: The replacement of calcium with magnesium affects the crystal structure of the rock. Dolomite crystals have a distinct rhombohedral shape and consist of layers of alternating calcium and magnesium ions. This crystal structure is different from the simple hexagonal structure of calcite.
  4. Sedimentary Environments: Dolomite can form in a variety of sedimentary environments, including marine, lacustrine (lake), and evaporitic settings. In marine environments, for example, magnesium-rich seawater interacts with limestone sediments, leading to dolomitization. Evaporitic settings, where water evaporation concentrates minerals, can also facilitate dolomite formation.
  5. Dolomite Rock Types: The result of dolomitization is the formation of dolomite-rich rocks. These rocks can include dolostone, which is the equivalent of limestone but composed primarily of dolomite. Dolostones can vary in texture from fine-grained to coarse-grained, and their color can range from pale gray to various shades of pink, green, or brown.
  6. Geological History: The occurrence of dolomite-bearing rocks can provide valuable insights into the geological history of an area. For example, the presence of dolomite can indicate past changes in sea chemistry, such as shifts in magnesium and calcium concentrations. These rocks can also reflect the processes that occurred during diagenesis, which is the transformation of sediments into solid rock.
  7. Regional Variations: Dolomite occurrence can vary by region and geological context. Some areas have extensive dolomite formations, while in others, it may be relatively scarce. The conditions required for dolomitization to occur, such as the availability of magnesium-rich fluids, influence its distribution.

In summary, dolomite forms through the process of dolomitization, where magnesium-rich fluids interact with calcium carbonate minerals in sedimentary rocks, leading to the substitution of magnesium for calcium. This process occurs over long geological timescales and can result in the formation of dolomite-rich rocks with distinct physical and chemical properties. Dolomite occurrence provides valuable clues about the Earth’s history and the geological processes that have shaped its surface.

Chemical Properties of Dolomite

Dolomite Lumps, Packaging Type Loose

Dolomite is a calcium magnesium carbonate mineral with the chemical formula CaMg(CO3)2. Its chemical properties stem from its composition, which includes both calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). Here are the key chemical properties of dolomite:

  1. Composition: The chemical formula of dolomite reflects its composition, which consists of one calcium atom (Ca), one magnesium atom (Mg), and two carbonate ions (CO3) in the mineral structure. The arrangement of these atoms gives rise to the distinct properties of dolomite.
  2. Solid Solution: Dolomite can form a solid solution series with the mineral ankerite, which is an iron-rich member of the same mineral group. In this solid solution, varying proportions of iron (Fe) can substitute for the magnesium in the dolomite structure.
  3. Crystal Structure: Dolomite has a trigonal crystal structure, similar to calcite (another common calcium carbonate mineral). However, the presence of magnesium in dolomite leads to distinct differences in its crystal lattice. The crystal structure of dolomite consists of alternating layers of calcium and magnesium ions held together by carbonate ions.
  4. Dolomitization: The process of dolomitization involves the substitution of magnesium for some of the calcium in calcium carbonate minerals. This ion substitution alters the properties of the mineral and leads to the formation of dolomite. The extent of dolomitization can influence the mineral’s properties and appearance.
  5. Solubility: Dolomite is less soluble in water than calcite. While both minerals react with weak acids to release carbon dioxide (effervescence), dolomite’s reaction is generally slower due to its magnesium content. This property is often used as a diagnostic test to distinguish between dolomite and calcite.
  6. Color: The presence of trace elements and impurities can give dolomite a range of colors, including white, gray, pink, green, and brown. The specific coloration depends on the type and concentration of impurities present.
  7. Luster: Dolomite typically exhibits a vitreous to pearly luster on its cleavage surfaces. This luster is a result of the way light interacts with the crystal surfaces.
  8. Hardness: Dolomite has a hardness of around 3.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale, making it relatively harder than most sedimentary rocks but still softer than minerals like quartz.
  9. Specific Gravity: The specific gravity of dolomite varies depending on its composition and impurities but generally falls between 2.8 and 2.9.
  10. Reactivity: Dolomite’s reactivity with acids is a distinguishing feature. When exposed to weak acids like hydrochloric acid, dolomite will react and release carbon dioxide gas, resulting in effervescence. This reaction is a useful test for identifying dolomite in the field.

In summary, dolomite’s chemical properties are defined by its composition as a calcium magnesium carbonate mineral. Its crystal structure, solubility, color, luster, and other characteristics stem from the arrangement of its atoms and the presence of magnesium within its mineral lattice.

Physical Properties of Dolomite


Dolomite is a mineral with distinctive physical properties that stem from its crystal structure and chemical composition. Here are the key physical properties of dolomite:

  1. Color: Dolomite can exhibit a wide range of colors, including white, gray, pink, green, and brown. The specific color depends on the presence of impurities and trace elements in the mineral. Different colors are often due to variations in the mineral’s crystal lattice caused by these impurities.
  2. Luster: Dolomite typically displays a vitreous (glassy) to pearly luster on its cleavage surfaces. The luster results from the way light interacts with the mineral’s smooth surfaces, giving it a characteristic sheen.
  3. Transparency: Dolomite is usually translucent to opaque. Light can pass through thin sections of the mineral, but thicker pieces tend to be opaque.
  4. Crystal System: Dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system, forming rhombohedral crystals. This crystal system gives dolomite its distinct crystal shapes and symmetry.
  5. Crystal Habit: Dolomite crystals often form rhombohedral (diamond-shaped) crystals with flat faces and angles that resemble equilateral triangles. These crystals can also occur in aggregates or granular masses.
  6. Cleavage: Dolomite exhibits three perfect cleavage directions that intersect at angles close to 60 and 120 degrees. Cleavage planes are often seen as flat surfaces on dolomite crystals.
  7. Hardness: Dolomite has a Mohs hardness of around 3.5 to 4, which means it is relatively soft compared to minerals like quartz. It can be scratched with a knife blade or a copper penny.
  8. Density: The density of dolomite varies depending on its composition and impurities but generally falls within the range of 2.8 to 2.9 grams per cubic centimeter.
  9. Specific Gravity: Dolomite’s specific gravity, a measure of its density compared to the density of water, typically ranges from 2.85 to 2.95.
  10. Fracture: Dolomite has a conchoidal to uneven fracture, meaning it breaks with curved or irregular surfaces. The nature of the fracture can vary based on the specific conditions of the mineral sample.
  11. Effervescence: One of the characteristic tests for dolomite is its reaction with weak acids, such as hydrochloric acid. When dolomite is exposed to these acids, it produces carbon dioxide gas, resulting in effervescence. This reaction distinguishes dolomite from minerals like calcite.
  12. Streak: The streak of dolomite, which is the color of the mineral’s powdered form, is often white. However, it can vary depending on impurities present in the sample.

In summary, dolomite’s physical properties are defined by its crystal structure, cleavage, hardness, color, luster, and other characteristics. These properties make dolomite easily distinguishable from other minerals and contribute to its various uses in industries such as construction, agriculture, and manufacturing.

Optical Properties of Dolomite

The optical properties of dolomite describe how the mineral interacts with light and how it appears when viewed under various lighting conditions. These properties are important for identifying and characterizing minerals in both geological and laboratory settings. Here are the key optical properties of dolomite:

  1. Refractive Index: Dolomite has a refractive index that varies depending on its composition and impurities. The refractive index is a measure of how much light is bent or refracted when it enters the mineral. The index can be used to calculate the critical angle for total internal reflection, which is important for understanding the behavior of light within the mineral.
  2. Birefringence: Dolomite exhibits birefringence, which is the difference between the refractive indices in different crystallographic directions. This property causes light to split into two rays as it passes through the mineral, resulting in interference patterns when viewed under a polarizing microscope.
  3. Pleochroism: Pleochroism is the property of some minerals to display different colors when viewed from different crystallographic directions. In the case of dolomite, pleochroism is typically weak, and the mineral may show slight color variations when rotated.
  4. Polarization: When viewed under a polarizing microscope, dolomite can display a range of interference colors due to its birefringence. These colors are indicative of the mineral’s crystal structure and orientation.
  5. Extinction: Extinction refers to the phenomenon where the interference colors in a mineral disappear when it is rotated under crossed polarizers in a microscope. The angle at which this occurs can provide information about the orientation of the mineral’s crystals.
  6. Twinning: Dolomite crystals can sometimes exhibit twinning, where two or more crystals grow together with a specific orientation relationship. Twinning can result in repeating patterns or symmetrical arrangements of crystal faces, and it may affect the interference colors observed under a polarizing microscope.
  7. Transparency and Opacity: Dolomite is usually translucent to opaque, meaning that light can pass through thin sections of the mineral but not through thicker portions.
  8. Pleochroic Halos: In some cases, the radioactive decay of uranium in the surrounding rock can produce pleochroic halos around minerals like dolomite. These halos result from the radiation-induced coloration of adjacent mineral material.
  9. Fluorescence: Dolomite does not typically exhibit strong fluorescence under ultraviolet (UV) light. However, some dolomite samples might show weak fluorescence responses, depending on their impurity content.

Overall, the optical properties of dolomite, such as birefringence, pleochroism, and interference colors, are valuable tools for mineral identification and characterization. These properties, when observed under a polarizing microscope, can help geologists and researchers gain insights into the mineral’s crystal structure, composition, and formation history.

Importance and Uses

Dolomite has several important uses across various industries due to its unique chemical and physical properties. Here are some of the key applications and significance of dolomite:

  1. Construction and Building Materials: Dolomite is commonly used as a construction and building material. Crushed dolomite is often used as a base material for roads, driveways, and pathways. It provides a stable foundation and helps to prevent erosion and settling. Dolomite aggregates are also used in concrete and asphalt production to enhance the strength and durability of these materials.
  2. Magnesium Production: Dolomite is a significant source of magnesium, an essential element used in a wide range of applications. It serves as a raw material in the production of magnesium metal and alloys. Dolomite can be calcined (heated at high temperatures) to extract magnesium oxide (MgO), which can then be used in various industrial processes.
  3. Agricultural Applications: Dolomite is used as a soil conditioner in agriculture to improve the pH balance of acidic soils. It contains both calcium and magnesium, which are beneficial for plant growth. Dolomite can help neutralize soil acidity, promote nutrient absorption, and enhance overall soil fertility.
  4. Fertilizer Additive: Dolomite is sometimes used as an additive in fertilizers to provide a source of calcium and magnesium. These nutrients are important for plant health and growth. Dolomite-based fertilizers are particularly useful for crops that require higher levels of magnesium, such as tomatoes and peppers.
  5. Refractory Materials: Dolomite’s high melting point and resistance to heat and fire make it suitable for use in refractory materials. These materials are used in industrial furnaces, kilns, and other high-temperature applications where heat resistance is crucial.
  6. Ceramics and Glass Production: Dolomite is used in the production of ceramics and glass as a source of magnesium and calcium. It can improve the properties of ceramic glazes and increase the durability of glass products.
  7. Water Treatment: Dolomite is sometimes used in water treatment processes to help remove impurities from drinking water and wastewater. It can aid in the removal of heavy metals and provide alkalinity to neutralize acidic water.
  8. Metal Smelting: Dolomite can be used as a fluxing agent in metal smelting processes. It helps to lower the melting point of the materials being processed, which can improve the efficiency of metal extraction.
  9. Dimension Stone: Certain varieties of dolomite with attractive colors and patterns are used as ornamental and decorative stones in architecture and landscaping. These stones are often polished and used for countertops, flooring, and other interior and exterior design elements.
  10. Geological and Paleontological Studies: Dolomite-bearing rocks play a role in understanding the Earth’s geological history and can provide valuable insights into past environmental conditions and changes. Fossils and sedimentary structures within dolomitic rocks offer clues about ancient ecosystems and past marine environments.

Overall, the diverse range of uses for dolomite underscores its significance in various industries, from construction and agriculture to industrial manufacturing and environmental applications. Its properties as a source of magnesium and calcium, as well as its unique physical characteristics, make it a versatile and valuable mineral resource.

Dolomite vs. Limestone: Differences and Comparisons

Dolomite and limestone are both carbonate minerals that are often found in sedimentary rock formations. While they share some similarities, they also have distinct differences in terms of their composition, properties, and formation. Here’s a comparison of dolomite and limestone:


  • Dolomite: Dolomite is a calcium magnesium carbonate mineral with the chemical formula CaMg(CO3)2. It contains both calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) ions in its crystal structure, which gives it a double carbonate composition.
  • Limestone: Limestone is primarily composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). It lacks the magnesium component found in dolomite.


  • Dolomite: Dolomite forms through the process of dolomitization, where magnesium-rich fluids interact with pre-existing limestone or lime-rich sediments. Magnesium ions replace some of the calcium ions in the mineral structure, resulting in the formation of dolomite.
  • Limestone: Limestone forms through the accumulation and lithification (compaction and cementation) of calcium carbonate sediments. It can originate from the accumulation of shells, coral fragments, and other calcium carbonate-rich materials.

Crystal Structure:

  • Dolomite: Dolomite crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system. Its crystal structure consists of alternating layers of calcium and magnesium ions held together by carbonate ions.
  • Limestone: Limestone can consist of various crystal forms of calcium carbonate, including calcite (rhombic crystals) and aragonite (orthorhombic crystals).


  • Dolomite: Dolomite has a hardness of around 3.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale.
  • Limestone: Limestone’s hardness can vary, but it generally falls within the range of 3 to 4 on the Mohs scale.

Acid Reaction:

  • Dolomite: Dolomite reacts with weak acids like hydrochloric acid to release carbon dioxide gas with effervescence, although the reaction is generally slower than that of calcite.
  • Limestone: Limestone reacts more readily with weak acids, such as hydrochloric acid, producing a more vigorous effervescence.


  • Dolomite: Dolomite can exhibit a range of colors, including white, gray, pink, green, and brown, depending on impurities.
  • Limestone: Limestone is often light in color, with shades of white, cream, beige, and gray being common.


  • Both dolomite and limestone have various industrial and commercial uses, including construction materials, agricultural supplements, and manufacturing additives. However, dolomite’s magnesium content makes it particularly valuable as a source of magnesium in various applications.

In summary, while dolomite and limestone are both carbonate minerals and are often found together, they have differences in their composition, formation, crystal structure, physical properties, and reactivity with acids. These differences contribute to their distinct roles in geological processes and various industrial applications.


Dolomite is distributed worldwide and can be found in a variety of geological settings and environments. Its distribution is closely tied to the processes of dolomitization and the availability of magnesium-rich fluids. Here are some notable regions and geological settings where dolomite is commonly found:

  1. Sedimentary Basins: Dolomite is often associated with sedimentary basins, where it forms in marine, lacustrine, and evaporitic settings. Sedimentary basins around the world, both ancient and modern, can host dolomite-bearing rocks.
  2. Ancient Sea Deposits: Many ancient marine environments, such as those from the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, have preserved dolomite-rich formations. These ancient seas contained the necessary conditions for dolomitization to occur.
  3. Carbonate Platforms: Dolomite is often found in carbonate platform environments, where warm, shallow seas provide the ideal conditions for the accumulation of carbonate sediments. These platforms can range from modern reefs to ancient platforms from various geological epochs.
  4. Evaporitic Environments: In evaporitic basins, where water evaporates and leaves behind concentrated minerals, dolomite can form in association with other evaporite minerals like gypsum and halite.
  5. Hydrothermal Veins: Dolomite can also occur in hydrothermal veins formed by hot, mineral-rich fluids that have interacted with pre-existing rocks.
  6. Mountain Belts: In certain mountain belts, dolomite can be found in contact metamorphic zones, where it forms through the interaction of hot fluids from intrusive igneous rocks with carbonate rocks.
  7. Caves and Karst Landscapes: Dolomite can be associated with caves and karst landscapes, where dissolution processes create underground voids and mineral deposits.

Notable regions where dolomite-bearing rocks are found include:

  • Dolomites, Italy: The Dolomite Mountains in northern Italy are famous for their extensive dolomite rock formations, where the mineral was first described. These mountains are part of the Southern Limestone Alps.
  • Midwestern United States: The Midwestern region of the United States, including parts of the states of Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan, contains significant dolomite deposits that have been quarried for construction materials.
  • Spain: The Iberian Peninsula, including areas of Spain, has well-known dolomite formations.
  • China: China is another country with extensive dolomite deposits, and the mineral is often used for various industrial purposes.
  • South Africa: Dolomite formations can be found in parts of South Africa, particularly in regions with carbonate-rich sediments.

It’s important to note that while dolomite is widespread, its distribution can vary significantly based on geological history, tectonic activity, sedimentary environments, and local geological conditions. As a result, dolomite can be found in diverse locations around the world, contributing to its geological and economic significance.


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