Calcite is a mineral that holds a significant place in the world of geology, mineralogy, and various industries due to its distinctive properties and widespread occurrence. It is a calcium carbonate mineral with the chemical formula CaCO3. Let’s delve into its definition, composition, chemical formula, and crystal structure.

Definition and Composition: Calcite is a carbonate mineral, which means it contains the carbonate ion (CO3^2-) as a fundamental building block. It is one of the most common minerals on Earth and can be found in various geological settings. Its name is derived from the Latin word “calx,” which means lime, highlighting its close association with limestone and other calcium-rich rocks.

Chemical Formula: The chemical formula of calcite is CaCO3. This formula indicates that each unit of calcite consists of one calcium (Ca) atom, one carbon (C) atom, and three oxygen (O) atoms arranged in a specific pattern.

Crystal Structure: Calcite has a trigonal crystal structure, belonging to the hexagonal crystal system. Its crystal lattice is composed of calcium ions (Ca^2+) bonded to carbonate ions (CO3^2-) in a repeating pattern. This arrangement gives rise to calcite’s unique optical properties, including double refraction and birefringence.

In its crystal lattice, the carbonate ions form triangular units with one carbon atom at the center and three oxygen atoms at the corners. These carbonate units are stacked and interconnected with calcium ions in between. The symmetry and arrangement of these units give calcite its characteristic rhombohedral cleavage and a wide range of crystal shapes.

Calcite’s crystal lattice arrangement also contributes to its ability to exhibit double refraction, where light passing through the crystal is split into two rays that follow slightly different paths due to the varying velocities of light in different directions within the crystal.

  • Some geologists consider it to be a “ubiquitous mineral” – one that is found everywhere.
  • Calcite is the principal constituent of limestone and marble. These rocks are extremely common and make up a significant portion of Earth’s crust.
  • The properties of calcite make it one of the most widely used minerals. It is used as a construction material, abrasive, agricultural soil treatment, construction aggregate, pigment, pharmaceutical and more.

Association: Dolomite, celestine, fluorite, barite, pyrite, marcasite, sphalerite (low-temperature veins); zeolites, chalcedony, “chlorite” (vesicles); talc, tremolite, grossular, quartz (metamorphic); nepheline, diopside, apatite, orthoclase (igneous).

Polymorphism & Series: Trimorphous with aragonite and vaterite; forms a series with rhodochrosite.

Mineral Group: Calcite group

Diagnostic Features: Distinguished by its softness (3), its perfect cleavage, light color, vitreous luster. Distinguished from dolomite by the fact that fragments of calcite effervesce freely in cold hydrochloric acid, whereas those of dolomite do not. Distinguished from aragonite by having lower specific gravity and rhombohedral cleavage.

Physical Properties of Calcite

Calcite is known for its distinct physical properties, which contribute to its identification and utility in various applications. Here are some of the key physical properties of calcite:

1. Color and Transparency: Calcite can occur in a wide range of colors, including colorless, white, gray, yellow, green, blue, and even shades of pink and red. It often exhibits a translucent to transparent appearance, allowing light to pass through its crystals.

2. Luster: The luster of calcite is typically vitreous to resinous. When polished, it can display a shiny or glassy appearance, contributing to its use in decorative items.

3. Cleavage and Fracture: Calcite has perfect rhombohedral cleavage, meaning it can be easily broken along specific planes that correspond to the angles of a rhombus. This cleavage is a defining characteristic of calcite crystals. When subjected to stress, calcite can exhibit conchoidal fracture, producing curved, shell-like fractures.

4. Hardness: Calcite has a relatively low hardness on the Mohs scale, with a rating of 3. This means that it can be scratched by a copper coin or a steel knife, but it cannot scratch glass.

5. Specific Gravity: The specific gravity of calcite ranges from 2.71 to 2.94, indicating that it is relatively lightweight compared to some other minerals. This property contributes to its use in various applications, including in the production of cement and lime.

6. Crystal Forms and Habit: Calcite crystals can take various forms, including rhombohedra, scalenohedra, prisms, and combinations of these shapes. The rhombohedron, with its angles of 78° and 102°, is the most common crystal form for calcite. The combination of crystal forms often leads to complex and interesting habits.

7. Optical Properties: Calcite exhibits remarkable optical properties due to its crystal structure. It is birefringent, meaning that it can split a single incident light ray into two rays, each with a different polarization. This property is used in various optical instruments.

8. Fluorescence: Certain varieties of calcite can exhibit fluorescence under ultraviolet (UV) light. They may emit visible light in different colors, depending on impurities present in the crystal lattice.

9. Taste and Reaction to Acid: Calcite is slightly soluble in water, and if powdered calcite is placed on the tongue, it will produce a mild taste. Additionally, calcite effervesces or fizzes when exposed to weak acids due to the release of carbon dioxide gas.

These physical properties collectively make calcite a distinctive and valuable mineral in both scientific and practical contexts, from geological studies to industrial applications and ornamental uses.

Chemical Properties of Calcite

Calcite’s chemical properties are closely tied to its composition, which is primarily calcium carbonate (CaCO3). These properties play a crucial role in various geological, industrial, and biological processes. Here are some key chemical properties of calcite:

1. Composition: The chemical formula of calcite is CaCO3, indicating that it consists of one calcium (Ca) atom, one carbon (C) atom, and three oxygen (O) atoms. This composition is fundamental to understanding its behavior and reactivity.

2. Reaction with Acid: Calcite reacts readily with weak acids, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl), due to its carbonate content. The reaction produces carbon dioxide gas (CO2), water (H2O), and calcium chloride (CaCl2). This effervescence or fizzing is a distinctive property of calcite and is often used to identify it in the field.

3. Solubility in Water: Calcite is slightly soluble in water, especially when compared to other carbonate minerals. This solubility is influenced by factors such as temperature, pressure, and the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide. Over long periods, water containing dissolved carbon dioxide can dissolve calcite, leading to the formation of cave systems and karst landscapes.

4. Role in Carbon Cycle: Calcite plays a significant role in the carbon cycle, a vital natural process that involves the cycling of carbon compounds between the atmosphere, oceans, soil, and living organisms. Calcite is involved in the carbon cycle through processes like weathering, sedimentation, and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and oceans.

5. Weathering and Dissolution: Calcite-rich rocks, such as limestone and marble, are susceptible to weathering and dissolution when exposed to acidic water and atmospheric gases. This process, known as chemical weathering, leads to the breakdown of calcite minerals and the release of calcium ions and bicarbonate ions into solution.

6. Industrial Applications: Calcite’s chemical properties make it valuable in various industrial applications. It is a key ingredient in the production of cement, where it acts as a flux to lower the melting temperature of the raw materials. Calcite is also used in the production of lime (calcium oxide) through the process of calcination.

7. Acid Neutralization: Due to its reactivity with acids, calcite is used to neutralize acidic substances. In industries like agriculture and wastewater treatment, calcite is added to balance pH levels and reduce the acidity of solutions.

8. Biological Calcium Carbonate Mineralization: Calcite is essential in the formation of shells, skeletons, and other hard structures in various marine organisms, including mollusks, corals, and certain types of algae. These organisms extract dissolved calcium and carbonate ions from seawater to build their protective structures.

9. Isotopic Signatures: Calcite can contain isotopic signatures that provide valuable information about past environmental conditions. Isotopic ratios of elements like carbon and oxygen in calcite can reveal details about ancient climates, ocean temperatures, and even the sources of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.In summary, calcite’s chemical properties are crucial to its role in geological processes, industrial applications, and biological systems. Its interaction with acids, solubility in water, and role in the carbon cycle make it a mineral of immense importance in understanding Earth’s history and shaping various aspects of our world.

Optical Properties of Calcite

Calcite under the microscope

Calcite is renowned for its unique optical properties, which set it apart from many other minerals. These properties are a result of its crystal structure and interactions with light. Here are some key optical properties of calcite:

1. Birefringence: Perhaps the most notable optical property of calcite is birefringence, also known as double refraction. Birefringence occurs when a mineral has different refractive indices for light vibrating in different directions. In calcite, light passing through the crystal is split into two rays, each following a different path and experiencing different velocities. This results in a double image when looking through a calcite crystal. This property is used in various optical instruments, such as polarizing microscopes.

2. Pleochroism: Pleochroism is the property of minerals to exhibit different colors when viewed from different angles. While calcite itself is not strongly pleochroic, some varieties, especially those containing trace impurities, can show pleochroic effects.

3. Interference Colors: When viewed under cross-polarized light, calcite crystals display a vibrant array of interference colors. These colors are a result of the interaction between polarized light and the birefringent crystal lattice of calcite. The thickness of the crystal section, combined with its birefringence, determines the colors seen.

4. Tactile Property: Calcite’s birefringence can sometimes be sensed by touch. When a transparent, thin piece of calcite is placed on a printed page, the text appears doubled due to the birefringent effect. This tactile property is often used as a simple demonstration of calcite’s optical characteristics.

5. Polarization Filters: Calcite crystals are often used to produce polarizing filters. A piece of calcite cut at a specific angle can be used to polarize light. When light passes through such a crystal, only one of the two refracted rays is allowed to pass, effectively polarizing the light.

6. Optical Calcite or Iceland Spar: A special variety of calcite called optical calcite or Iceland spar is particularly famous for its optical properties. This variety exhibits exceptional birefringence and clear transparency, allowing it to be used as a polarizing material in optical instruments. Iceland spar was historically used for navigation and scientific purposes.

7. Thin Section Analysis: In geology, thin sections of rocks containing calcite can be studied under polarizing microscopes. The interaction between polarized light and calcite’s birefringent properties helps geologists identify and characterize minerals and their crystallographic orientations in rocks.

In summary, calcite’s optical properties, especially its birefringence, make it an essential mineral in various fields, including mineralogy, geology, optics, and materials science. Its ability to split light into two rays with different velocities has practical applications in technology and scientific research.

Formation and Geology of Calcite

Calcite forms through a variety of processes in different geological environments. It is a key mineral in sedimentary rocks like limestone and marble, and its formation is influenced by factors such as temperature, pressure, and the composition of fluids involved. Let’s explore these aspects in more detail:

1. Formation Processes in Sedimentary Environments: Calcite commonly forms in sedimentary environments where the accumulation of minerals and organic material occurs over time. In marine environments, for example, microscopic marine organisms like plankton extract dissolved calcium and carbonate ions from seawater to build shells and skeletons. When these organisms die, their remains accumulate on the ocean floor, eventually forming sedimentary rocks rich in calcite.

2. Role in the Formation of Limestone and Marble: Limestone is a sedimentary rock primarily composed of calcite. It forms from the accumulation of calcite-rich shells, coral fragments, and other organic debris. Over time, the pressure from overlying sediments compacts these materials, and the minerals cement together to form solid limestone.

Marble, on the other hand, is a metamorphic rock that forms from the recrystallization of limestone due to high temperature and pressure. During this process, the calcite crystals in the limestone undergo changes in their crystal structure and orientation, resulting in the distinctive texture and appearance of marble.

3. Influence of Temperature, Pressure, and Fluid Composition: Calcite formation can be influenced by temperature, pressure, and the composition of fluids present in the geological environment:

  • Temperature: Higher temperatures can enhance the rate of chemical reactions, including the precipitation of calcite. In hydrothermal systems, where hot fluids interact with rocks, calcite can precipitate as veins and deposits.
  • Pressure: Pressure affects the solubility of minerals, including calcite. In deep sedimentary basins, increased pressure can lead to the precipitation of calcite from fluids, contributing to the formation of calcite-rich rocks.
  • Fluid Composition: The composition of fluids in contact with calcite-bearing rocks can influence calcite formation. When fluids rich in dissolved calcium and carbonate ions interact with rocks, calcite can precipitate. Conversely, in certain acidic conditions, calcite dissolution can occur.

4. Other Environments: Calcite can also form in other geological settings. For instance, it can precipitate from groundwater in caves, forming stalactites and stalagmites. Additionally, calcite can be found in hydrothermal veins, as well as in association with other minerals in ore deposits.

In summary, calcite formation is a complex process influenced by geological conditions such as temperature, pressure, and fluid composition. Its role in the formation of limestone, marble, and various mineral deposits showcases its significance in understanding Earth’s history and the processes that shape the planet’s crust.

Occurrence and Geological Significance of Calcite

Calcite is a widely distributed mineral found in a variety of geological settings, and its presence has significant implications for understanding Earth’s history, processes, and even certain economic activities. Here’s a look at its occurrence and geological significance:

1. Sedimentary Rocks: Calcite is a major component of various sedimentary rocks, most notably limestone and its metamorphic counterpart, marble. Limestone formations can be massive and extensive, representing ancient marine environments where calcite-rich shells and skeletons accumulated. These rocks provide valuable insights into past climates, environments, and ecosystems.

2. Karst Landscapes: Calcite’s solubility in water leads to the formation of unique geological landscapes called karst landscapes. Over time, as rainwater containing dissolved carbon dioxide interacts with calcite-rich rocks, it forms underground cavities, sinkholes, caves, and other features. These landscapes play a role in water storage, groundwater movement, and often feature stunning formations like stalactites and stalagmites.

3. Mineral Deposits: Calcite can be associated with various types of mineral deposits. In hydrothermal veins, where hot fluids circulate through fractures in rocks, calcite can precipitate along with other minerals. Calcite can also be present in ore deposits, especially those related to metallic ores like lead, zinc, and copper. Its presence can indicate specific conditions of mineral formation.

4. Economic Uses: Calcite has significant economic importance in various industries. It is a key ingredient in the production of cement, acting as a flux during the process. The process of calcination, where limestone (calcium carbonate) is heated, produces quicklime (calcium oxide), which is used in industries such as steelmaking, paper production, and more.

5. Paleoclimate and Environmental Studies: The isotopic composition of carbon and oxygen in calcite can provide valuable information about past climates and environmental conditions. By analyzing the stable isotopes in calcite, researchers can reconstruct ancient temperatures, atmospheric conditions, and even changes in ocean chemistry.

6. Fossilization and Paleontology: Calcite plays a crucial role in the preservation of fossils. When an organism’s hard parts, such as bones or shells, are buried and surrounded by sediment rich in calcite, the mineral can slowly replace the organic material while maintaining the original structure. This process, known as mineralization, can lead to the formation of well-preserved fossils.

7. Carbon Cycling: Calcite is an integral part of the carbon cycle, where carbon compounds circulate between the atmosphere, oceans, soil, and living organisms. The precipitation and dissolution of calcite in oceanic environments contribute to the regulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

In summary, calcite’s widespread occurrence and geological significance make it a mineral of great importance in understanding Earth’s past and present. Its presence in various rock types, its role in forming unique landscapes, and its involvement in industrial processes and environmental studies all highlight its impact on the planet’s geology and natural systems.

Industrial and Practical Uses of Calcite

Calcite’s unique properties and widespread occurrence make it valuable in a variety of industrial and practical applications. Its versatility is evident in fields ranging from construction to manufacturing to environmental protection. Here are some of the key industrial and practical uses of calcite:

1. Construction and Building Materials:

  • Limestone: Calcite is a major component of limestone, a common construction material used for buildings, roads, and monuments. Limestone’s durability, workability, and aesthetic qualities make it a favored choice in construction.

2. Cement Production:

  • Calcite as a Flux: Calcite is used as a flux in the production of cement. During the calcination process, limestone (calcium carbonate) is heated to produce lime (calcium oxide), which combines with other materials to form cement.

3. Lime Production:

  • Quicklime Production: Calcite-rich limestone is subjected to high temperatures in a process known as calcination. This results in the production of quicklime (calcium oxide), which is used in various industrial applications, including in steelmaking, water treatment, and the manufacturing of chemicals.

4. Acid Neutralization:

  • pH Adjustment: Calcite’s reactivity with acids makes it useful for neutralizing acidic substances in various industries. It is used to balance pH levels in wastewater treatment, agricultural soils, and industrial processes.

5. Agriculture and Soil Enhancement:

  • Calcium Source: Calcite is added to agricultural soils as a source of calcium, an essential nutrient for plant growth. It also helps to regulate soil pH, improving nutrient availability to plants.

6. Environmental Protection:

  • Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Calcite’s ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere has led to discussions about its potential role in carbon capture and storage technologies. In theory, calcite-rich materials could be used to capture and sequester carbon dioxide emissions from industrial processes.

7. Optical and Electronic Applications:

  • Optics: Optical calcite (Iceland spar) is used in polarizing filters and optical instruments due to its birefringent properties. It can also be used to demonstrate the principles of polarized light in educational settings.
  • Electronics: In the field of electronics, calcite can be used as a substrate for certain types of optical coatings and semiconductor materials.

8. Decorative Objects and Gemstones:

  • Ornamental Use: Highly transparent calcite crystals are sometimes used as decorative objects and even as gemstones. These crystals can be faceted and polished to showcase their optical properties.

9. Fossil Preservation:

  • Fossilization: Calcite plays a role in the preservation of fossils by replacing organic materials with mineralized replicas. This process helps create detailed and well-preserved fossils that provide valuable insights into Earth’s history.

10. Dietary Supplements and Pharmaceuticals:

  • Calcium Supplements: Calcite is a natural source of calcium, and calcium carbonate derived from calcite is used in dietary supplements and antacids to provide calcium to the body.

In summary, calcite’s wide range of industrial and practical uses highlights its importance in various fields, from construction and manufacturing to environmental protection and scientific applications. Its properties, such as reactivity with acids and optical characteristics, contribute to its versatility and value in modern industries.

Mineral Associations and Varieties of Calcite

Calcite is often found in association with other minerals, and it can exhibit a variety of crystal forms and habits. Its interactions with different minerals and conditions can lead to the formation of unique varieties. Let’s explore the mineral associations and some notable varieties of calcite:

1. Mineral Associations: Calcite is commonly found alongside other minerals in various rock formations. Some common associations include:

  • Quartz: Calcite and quartz can be found together in sedimentary rocks and hydrothermal veins.
  • Dolomite: Calcite and dolomite often coexist in sedimentary rocks known as dolostones.
  • Siderite: Calcite can be found in association with siderite in sedimentary iron ore deposits.
  • Gypsum: In caves, calcite and gypsum can form in close proximity, creating unique formations.

2. Notable Varieties:

– Optical Calcite (Iceland Spar): Iceland spar is a transparent variety of calcite known for its remarkable optical properties. It exhibits strong birefringence, causing double refraction of light. This property made it historically important in navigation and as a tool for understanding the polarization of light. Iceland spar is also used in scientific demonstrations and educational settings.

– Dogtooth Calcite: Dogtooth calcite, also known as nailhead spar, is characterized by its scalenohedral crystal habit, resembling dog’s teeth or nailheads. It often forms in cavities and fractures of rocks and can occur in a range of colors. Dogtooth calcite crystals can be quite large and impressive, making them desirable for collectors.

– Manganoan Calcite: This variety of calcite contains significant amounts of manganese, which can give it a pink to reddish color. Manganoan calcite is often associated with other manganese-rich minerals and can be found in various geological settings.

– Cobaltoan Calcite: Cobaltoan calcite is a pink to purple variety containing cobalt. It’s valued for its vibrant color and is commonly associated with other cobalt-bearing minerals. It’s often found in oxidized ore deposits.

– Honey Calcite: Honey calcite is a variety with a golden to honey-yellow color. It’s often found as coatings on other minerals or in sedimentary rock layers. Its warm color makes it a popular choice for lapidary use and as a decorative stone.

– Calcite Twinning: Calcite can exhibit various types of twinning, where two or more individual crystals grow together in specific orientations. One of the most famous twinning patterns is the “Roman Sword” twin, characterized by two calcite crystals crossing each other at a specific angle.

These varieties and associations demonstrate calcite’s versatility and its ability to form under different conditions and alongside various minerals. The diverse appearances and properties of these calcite varieties make them intriguing and valuable to both mineral enthusiasts and scientists.

Calcite in Everyday Life

Calcite’s properties and wide availability make it useful in various everyday applications, ranging from dietary supplements to decorative objects. Here are two specific ways in which calcite is used in everyday life:

1. Use in Dietary Supplements and Antacids: Calcium is an essential mineral for the human body, playing a vital role in bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and more. Since calcite is composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), it is a natural source of calcium. As a result, calcite-derived calcium carbonate is used in dietary supplements to provide individuals with a supplementary source of calcium. These supplements are particularly important for individuals who have dietary restrictions or inadequate calcium intake.

Calcium carbonate derived from calcite is also used in antacids. Antacids are medications that help neutralize excess stomach acid, providing relief from symptoms like heartburn and indigestion. Calcium carbonate in antacids reacts with stomach acid to form calcium chloride, water, and carbon dioxide, thus reducing the acidity of the stomach contents.

2. Calcite in Decorative Objects and Gemstones: Certain varieties of calcite, especially those with attractive colors and transparency, are used in decorative objects and even as gemstones. Here’s how calcite is used in this context:

  • Ornamental Items: Calcite crystals and polished stones are used in the creation of decorative items. Their vibrant colors, interesting crystal habits, and optical properties make them appealing for decorative purposes. Calcite is sometimes carved into figurines, spheres, and other shapes.
  • Lapidary Use: Lapidary artists work with calcite to cut, shape, and polish it into cabochons, beads, and faceted gemstones. Depending on the variety and quality, calcite can exhibit a range of colors, from clear to yellow, pink, blue, and more. These gemstones are used in jewelry-making and adornment.
  • Optical Crystals: The transparent and birefringent properties of optical calcite, also known as Iceland spar, have historically made it valuable for scientific and optical purposes. While its use in advanced optical instruments has diminished with the advent of modern technology, optical calcite is still used in educational demonstrations to illustrate the principles of birefringence and polarization.

In summary, calcite’s presence in dietary supplements, antacids, decorative items, and gemstones reflects its versatility and value in enhancing human health and aesthetic experiences. Its various forms and applications contribute to its role in our daily lives.

Environmental Impact and Concerns

Calcite, like many minerals, can have both positive and negative environmental impacts depending on how it is utilized and how its interactions with the environment are managed. Here are three environmental concerns related to calcite:

1. Acid Rain and Calcite Dissolution: Calcite is sensitive to acidic conditions. When exposed to acidic rainwater or acidic fluids in the environment, calcite can dissolve over time. This process can contribute to the phenomenon of acid rain, where rainwater becomes acidic due to the presence of pollutants like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from industrial activities. Acid rain can accelerate the weathering and erosion of calcite-rich rocks, leading to the degradation of landscapes and aquatic ecosystems.

2. Impact of Calcite Mining on Local Ecosystems: Calcite mining, like any mining activity, can have environmental consequences. Open-pit mining or quarrying of calcite-rich rocks can result in habitat destruction, alteration of local landscapes, and disruption of ecosystems. Mining operations might also involve the use of heavy machinery and produce dust, noise, and sediment runoff that can negatively impact nearby water bodies and wildlife habitats.

3. Role in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Discussions: Calcite’s ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere has led to discussions about its potential role in carbon capture and storage (CCS) strategies. The idea is to use calcite-rich materials to capture and sequester carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources or directly from the atmosphere. However, the feasibility and environmental impact of large-scale calcite-enhanced CCS methods are still being studied and debated. Potential concerns include the energy required to process and distribute calcite materials, as well as the potential for unintended environmental consequences.

It’s important to approach these concerns with a balanced perspective, considering both the benefits and potential negative impacts. Proper management, responsible mining practices, and sustainable approaches to mineral use can help mitigate many of these environmental issues associated with calcite and other minerals.


  • Bonewitz, R. (2012). Rocks and minerals. 2nd ed. London: DK Publishing.
  • Dana, J. D. (1864). Manual of Mineralogy… Wiley.
  • (2019). Handbook of Mineralogy. [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 Mar. 2019].
  • (2019): Mineral information, data and localities.. [online] Available at: [Accessed. 2019].
  • Kauwenbergh, S. J. Van (2010). World Phosphate Rock Reserves and Resources. Muscle Scholas, Alabama 35662. U.S.A. IDFC.
  • Palache, C., H. Berman, and C. Frondel (1951). Dana’s system of mineralogy, (7th edition).
  • Şahin, N., (1999). ‘Endüstriyel Hammadde Olarak Kalsit (CaCO3) ve Cevher Hazırlaması’. MTA Genel Müdürlüğü Derleme Rap No:10294, Ankara.
  • Yavuz, A.B. ; Türk, N. ; Koca, M.Y. (2002). The Mineralogical, Chemical, Physical and Mechanical Properties Of Muğla Region Marbles. Geological Engineering Research Article. 28(1).