Jadeite is a mineral that belongs to the pyroxene group, which is a group of rock-forming silicate minerals. It is one of two types of jade, the other being nephrite, and is particularly valued as a gemstone due to its vivid green color and translucency. Jadeite is known for its toughness, which makes it suitable for carving and other decorative uses.


Jadeite is composed of sodium, aluminum, and silicate, and its crystal structure is monoclinic, meaning it has a single plane of symmetry. It has a hardness of 6.5-7 on the Mohs scale, which is lower than some other gemstones such as diamonds and sapphires but still considered relatively hard. Jadeite is typically found in high-pressure metamorphic rocks such as serpentinite, and its formation is often associated with subduction zones.

Jadeite has a long history of cultural significance, particularly in Chinese and Mesoamerican cultures. In Chinese culture, jade is often associated with good luck, prosperity, and longevity, and has been used for decorative and ritual purposes for thousands of years. In Mesoamerican cultures, jade was often used to create intricate sculptures and jewelry, and was associated with power and the afterlife. Today, jadeite remains a popular gemstone and is often used in jewelry and other decorative items.

Geological formation

Jadeite is typically formed in high-pressure metamorphic rocks such as serpentinite. Serpentinite is formed when oceanic crust is subducted beneath a continental plate, and the high pressures and temperatures cause the minerals in the rock to recrystallize and change form. This process can take millions of years and occurs deep within the Earth’s crust.

Jadeite is formed when the mineral pyroxene is subjected to high pressures and temperatures, causing it to recrystallize into jadeite. The exact process of jadeite formation is not well understood, but it is thought to occur at depths of at least 30-40 kilometers within the Earth’s crust.

Jadeite is often found in association with other minerals such as albite, garnet, and omphacite. The presence of these minerals can give jadeite a variety of colors and patterns, with the most prized being a vivid green color known as “imperial jade.”

Jadeite is found in various locations around the world, including Myanmar (formerly Burma), Guatemala, and Japan. Myanmar is particularly well known for its high-quality jadeite deposits, with some of the finest examples of imperial jade coming from this region.

Occurrence and distribution

Jadeite is found in various locations around the world, including Myanmar (formerly Burma), Guatemala, and Japan. Myanmar is particularly well known for its high-quality jadeite deposits, with some of the finest examples of imperial jade coming from this region. The Hpakant region in northern Myanmar is one of the most important sources of jadeite in the world, and it is estimated that up to 90% of the world’s jadeite comes from this area.

Guatemala is another important source of jadeite, with deposits located in the Motagua Valley. These deposits are known for producing a distinctive blue-green jadeite, and the ancient Maya civilization prized this type of jadeite for use in carvings and jewelry.

Jadeite is also found in Japan, specifically in the Itoigawa region on the west coast of Honshu island. These deposits are known for producing a variety of colors and patterns of jadeite, including some of the finest white jadeite in the world.

Other sources of jadeite include Russia, Canada, and the United States. However, these deposits are generally not as significant as those found in Myanmar, Guatemala, and Japan.

Mining and production

Jadeite is typically mined using open-pit methods, with miners using hand tools to extract the rough jadeite from the surrounding rock. The rough jadeite is then transported to processing facilities where it is cut, carved, and polished to create finished pieces.

In Myanmar, the jadeite mining industry is largely controlled by the military and has been associated with corruption and human rights abuses. The mining practices used in the region are often unsafe and environmentally damaging, with workers facing long hours, poor working conditions, and low pay. However, efforts are being made to improve working conditions and sustainability in the industry.

In Guatemala, jadeite mining is largely done by small-scale operations, with local communities playing an important role in the industry. Many of these communities have developed their own methods for mining and processing jadeite, with traditional techniques passed down through generations.

In Japan, jadeite mining is a smaller-scale operation, with most of the jadeite being mined by hobbyists rather than commercial enterprises. The jadeite is typically found in riverbeds and is extracted using simple tools.

Once the rough jadeite is extracted, it is transported to processing facilities where it is cut, carved, and polished to create finished pieces. The process of cutting and polishing jadeite requires specialized equipment and skilled artisans. Jadeite is a very hard material, and cutting and polishing it requires a great deal of skill and precision.

Characteristics and properties

Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral that has a chemical composition of NaAlSi2O6. It is a dense, hard mineral with a Mohs hardness of 6.5 to 7, making it one of the toughest gemstones. It has a high density, which gives it a substantial weight and a pleasing heft. It has a vitreous to oily luster, and when polished, can have a very smooth and glassy appearance.

Jadeite can occur in a range of colors, including green, lavender, white, yellow, and black, with green being the most highly prized. The green color in jadeite is due to the presence of chromium and iron in its chemical composition. The most highly valued jadeite is a rich, translucent, emerald-green color that is known as “imperial jade.”

One of the unique features of jadeite is its ability to exhibit a translucency and texture that is highly prized by artisans. The finest jadeite has a smooth, polished surface that feels almost waxy to the touch. When viewed under a microscope, jadeite exhibits a unique fibrous structure that gives it its toughness and durability.

Jadeite is also known for its toughness and durability, which makes it an ideal material for carving and crafting. It has been used for thousands of years to create a variety of objects, including jewelry, sculptures, and even tools and weapons.

In addition to its aesthetic and artistic qualities, jadeite has also been used in traditional medicine practices in various cultures. It is believed to have healing properties and is said to promote relaxation, balance, and a sense of calmness.

Jadeite identification and evaluation

Jadeite can be identified and evaluated using a combination of physical, chemical, and optical tests.

Physical tests:

  • Hardness: Jadeite has a Mohs hardness of 6.5-7, which is harder than most other minerals.
  • Density: Jadeite has a density of 3.25-3.36 g/cm³, which is higher than most other minerals.
  • Toughness: Jadeite is extremely tough, which means it is difficult to break or chip.

Chemical tests:

  • Chemical composition: Jadeite is a sodium and aluminum-rich pyroxene mineral with the chemical formula NaAlSi₂O₆.
  • Infrared spectroscopy: This technique is used to identify the presence of jadeite based on its characteristic absorption spectrum.

Optical tests:

  • Refractive index: Jadeite has a refractive index of 1.66-1.67, which is higher than most other minerals.
  • Birefringence: Jadeite has a birefringence of 0.013-0.016, which is relatively high.
  • Pleochroism: Jadeite exhibits strong pleochroism, which means it shows different colors when viewed from different angles.
  • Fluorescence: Some jadeite specimens exhibit fluorescence under ultraviolet light.

Evaluation: The value of jadeite is based on several factors, including its color, translucency, texture, and overall quality. The most valuable jadeite is translucent, vivid green, and has a smooth texture with no visible inclusions or flaws. The presence of other colors, such as lavender or yellow, can also affect its value. The origin of the jadeite, with Burmese jadeite being considered the most valuable, can also play a role in its value.

Uses of Jadeite

Jadeite is primarily used in jewelry making and is highly valued in many cultures. It is especially popular in East Asian countries like China, Japan, and Myanmar, where it is considered a symbol of prestige and wealth. In China, jadeite has been highly prized for thousands of years, and it is often carved into intricate figurines, jewelry, and other decorative objects.

Apart from jewelry, jadeite is also used in some traditional Chinese medicine practices, where it is believed to have healing and medicinal properties. Additionally, jadeite has industrial applications in the production of specialized tools and equipment due to its toughness and resistance to abrasion.

Summary of key points

  • Jadeite is a mineral and a type of jade.
  • It is a pyroxene mineral with the chemical formula NaAlSi2O6.
  • It is known for its beautiful green color, but can also be found in other colors like white, yellow, and lavender.
  • Jadeite is formed in high-pressure, low-temperature environments deep within the Earth’s crust.
  • It is primarily found in Myanmar, but can also be found in other parts of Asia and Central and South America.
  • Jadeite is often used for carvings, jewelry, and decorative objects.
  • Its value is determined by a number of factors including color, transparency, texture, and overall quality.
  • Jadeite is often confused with other green stones like aventurine, serpentine, and amazonite, but can be identified through a number of tests including visual inspection, hardness testing, and infrared spectroscopy.

Jadeite FAQ

Is jadeite rarer than other types of jade?

Yes, jadeite is considered to be the rarer and more valuable of the two main types of jade (the other being nephrite). Jadeite is found in fewer locations and is often more difficult to mine and produce than nephrite.

Is jadeite always green?

No, jadeite can occur in a range of colors including white, yellow, lavender, and even black. However, green is the most well-known and valuable color for jadeite.

What is the most valuable type of jadeite?

The most valuable type of jadeite is a vivid, intense green color known as “imperial jade”. This type of jadeite is highly prized and can command very high prices.

Can jadeite be treated or enhanced?

Yes, jadeite can be treated and enhanced using a variety of methods including dyeing, bleaching, and heat treatment. However, treated jadeite is generally considered to be less valuable than natural, untreated jadeite.

How can I care for my jadeite jewelry?

Jadeite is relatively hard and durable, but it can still be damaged by heat, chemicals, and physical impact. To care for your jadeite jewelry, avoid exposing it to high temperatures, harsh chemicals, or impact. Clean it gently using a soft cloth and mild soap, and store it separately from other jewelry to avoid scratching.