The Stone Forest, also known as Shilin in Chinese, is a remarkable natural wonder located in the Yunnan Province of southwestern China. Renowned for its unique limestone formations, the Stone Forest is an expansive area filled with towering rock pillars, stone peaks, and intricate stone sculptures that resemble a forest made of stone, hence its name.

Covering an area of over 400 square kilometers (150 square miles), the Stone Forest is a popular tourist attraction and has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site. It is located approximately 78 kilometers (48 miles) southeast of Kunming, the capital city of Yunnan Province.

The stone formations in the Stone Forest are the result of geological processes that occurred over millions of years. The area was once covered by an ancient sea, and as the sea receded, the limestone deposits formed and were gradually shaped by the forces of water and erosion. The result is a surreal landscape of towering limestone pillars, some reaching heights of up to 30 meters (98 feet).

Exploring the Stone Forest allows visitors to wander through a labyrinth of stone formations, caves, and narrow pathways. The unique shapes of the limestone pillars have led to them being given imaginative names, such as “Sword Peak Pond,” “Ashima Stone,” and “Elephant Playing with Water.” These natural sculptures have inspired countless legends and folklore among the local Yi ethnic minority, who have inhabited the region for centuries.

Aside from its natural beauty, the Stone Forest is also home to a diverse range of plant and animal species. The area’s lush vegetation includes numerous ferns, orchids, and other endemic flora. Various birds, insects, and mammals can also be spotted within the forest, making it a haven for nature enthusiasts and wildlife lovers.

In addition to its scenic splendor, the Stone Forest offers visitors a glimpse into the rich cultural heritage of the region. The Yi people, one of China’s ethnic minorities, have inhabited the area for generations and have preserved their unique customs, traditions, and arts. Visitors can witness traditional Yi dances, music performances, and even participate in local festivals to experience the vibrant cultural tapestry of the Stone Forest.

Overall, the Stone Forest in China is a captivating destination that combines natural beauty, geological marvels, cultural heritage, and a sense of awe-inspiring wonder. Its unique limestone formations and rich history make it an enchanting place to explore, attracting tourists from around the world who seek to immerse themselves in its ethereal atmosphere and extraordinary landscapes.

Geological Formation and Features

The Stone Forest’s geological formation is primarily attributed to the accumulation of limestone and subsequent weathering processes. Here’s a more detailed explanation of its formation and notable features:

  1. Limestone Formation: The Stone Forest was once covered by an ancient sea around 270 million years ago during the Permian Period. Over time, the remains of marine organisms, such as shells and coral, settled at the bottom and formed layers of sediment. Through geological processes like compaction and lithification, these sediments transformed into limestone, a sedimentary rock composed mainly of calcium carbonate.
  2. Uplift and Erosion: Approximately 200 million years ago, tectonic movements caused the area to uplift, exposing the limestone deposits to the forces of erosion. The combination of water, wind, and chemical weathering gradually wore away the softer rock layers, leaving behind the distinctive karst landscape seen in the Stone Forest today.
  3. Karst Topography: The Stone Forest showcases karst topography, which is characterized by soluble rocks (in this case, limestone) being dissolved and eroded by water over time. Rainwater, containing weak carbonic acid from atmospheric carbon dioxide, seeps into cracks and fissures in the limestone, dissolving it and creating underground channels and caves. As the process continues, the land surface above can collapse, forming sinkholes and depressions.
  4. Pillars and Peaks: The most iconic feature of the Stone Forest is the numerous towering stone pillars and peaks that dot the landscape. These structures, sometimes reaching heights of 30 meters (98 feet), are the result of differential erosion. The harder limestone layers are more resistant to weathering and remain as vertical pillars, while the softer layers erode more quickly, creating the gaps and distinctive shapes seen in the rock formations.
  5. Caves and Underground Rivers: Within the Stone Forest, there are numerous caves and underground river systems that have formed through the dissolution of limestone. Some of these caves are open to visitors and offer a chance to explore the intricate network of subterranean passages and marvel at stalactites, stalagmites, and other cave formations.
  6. Natural Sculptures and Names: The unique shapes of the limestone formations have inspired imaginative names given to the rocks. Visitors can see sculptures resembling animals, plants, and other objects. For instance, the “Sword Peak Pond” resembles a forest of sword-like rocks rising from a calm pool, while the “Ashima Stone” is said to resemble a beautiful young girl from a local Yi ethnic legend.
  7. Subtropical Vegetation: The Stone Forest is also notable for its diverse subtropical vegetation. The area is rich in ferns, mosses, orchids, and other plant species that thrive in the humid and shaded environment. The lush greenery adds to the enchanting atmosphere of the Stone Forest and complements the dramatic rock formations.

The geological formation and features of the Stone Forest make it a captivating destination for geology enthusiasts, nature lovers, and curious travelers alike. Its unique karst landscape, towering stone pillars, and intricate caves combine to create a truly awe-inspiring natural wonder.

Exploration and Tourist Attractions

Exploring the Stone Forest offers visitors a range of attractions and activities that showcase the natural beauty and cultural heritage of the area. Here are some of the notable tourist attractions and experiences within the Stone Forest:

  1. Stone Forest Scenic Area: The Stone Forest Scenic Area is the main attraction within the region. It encompasses an extensive area of the stone formations, walking trails, and scenic viewpoints. Visitors can wander through the labyrinth of limestone pillars, marvel at the unique rock formations, and immerse themselves in the otherworldly atmosphere of the Stone Forest.
  2. Naigu Stone Forest: Naigu Stone Forest is a particularly scenic section within the Stone Forest. It is known for its dense concentration of towering stone peaks, deep valleys, and tranquil lakes. This section offers breathtaking vistas and picturesque spots for photography, allowing visitors to capture the grandeur of the stone formations.
  3. Lizijing Stone Forest: Lizijing Stone Forest is another popular section of the Stone Forest that features a variety of peculiar rock formations. It is renowned for its tall, slender stone pillars that resemble bamboo shoots. This area offers visitors a chance to witness the delicate and elegant beauty of the stone forest.
  4. Changhu Lake: Located within the Stone Forest Scenic Area, Changhu Lake is a serene lake surrounded by lush greenery. It provides a tranquil setting where visitors can relax, enjoy the peaceful ambiance, and appreciate the reflections of the surrounding stone formations on the water’s surface.
  5. Ethnic Cultural Performances: The Stone Forest is home to the Yi ethnic minority, who have inhabited the region for generations. Visitors can witness traditional Yi cultural performances, including dance, music, and theatrical presentations that showcase the unique customs, costumes, and art forms of the local community. These performances offer insights into the rich cultural heritage of the Stone Forest.
  6. Ethnic Villages: Exploring the nearby Yi ethnic villages allows visitors to experience the traditional lifestyle, architecture, and craftsmanship of the local community. It provides an opportunity to interact with the residents, learn about their customs, taste traditional cuisine, and purchase handcrafted souvenirs.
  7. Stone Forest Museum: The Stone Forest Museum provides a deeper understanding of the geological history, formation, and cultural significance of the Stone Forest. It exhibits a collection of fossils, minerals, and cultural artifacts, allowing visitors to delve into the scientific and cultural aspects of the region.
  8. Hiking and Nature Trails: The Stone Forest offers several hiking and nature trails that allow visitors to explore the area on foot. These trails take visitors through various sections of the stone formations, offering different perspectives and encounters with the natural beauty of the Stone Forest. Guided tours and information boards provide insights into the geological and ecological aspects of the area.
  9. Local Festivals: The Stone Forest hosts various local festivals throughout the year, providing an opportunity to witness and participate in traditional celebrations. These festivals often involve colorful ceremonies, music, dance performances, and lively cultural activities, adding to the vibrant atmosphere of the Stone Forest.

Visiting the Stone Forest offers a blend of natural wonders, cultural experiences, and outdoor activities that cater to a wide range of interests. Whether it’s exploring the surreal rock formations, immersing in local culture, or simply enjoying the tranquility of the surroundings, the Stone Forest provides a memorable and enchanting experience for tourists.


Where is the Stone Forest located?
The Stone Forest is located in the Yunnan Province of southwestern China, approximately 78 kilometers (48 miles) southeast of Kunming, the capital city of Yunnan.

How big is the Stone Forest?
The Stone Forest covers an area of over 400 square kilometers (150 square miles), offering a vast expanse of unique limestone formations to explore.

How were the limestone formations in the Stone Forest created?
The limestone formations in the Stone Forest were formed over millions of years through the accumulation of sediment and subsequent erosion and weathering processes.

Are there guided tours available in the Stone Forest?
Yes, guided tours are available in the Stone Forest. Local guides can provide informative commentary, help navigate the area, and share interesting stories and legends associated with the stone formations.

Can visitors hike in the Stone Forest?
Yes, visitors can hike in the Stone Forest. There are hiking trails and nature paths that allow for exploration of the area on foot. Some trails offer different viewpoints and encounters with the unique rock formations.

Are there entrance fees to visit the Stone Forest?
Yes, there are entrance fees to visit the Stone Forest. The fees may vary depending on the season and whether you are a domestic or international visitor. It is recommended to check the official website or inquire at the entrance for the latest pricing information.

Can visitors visit the Stone Forest year-round?
Yes, the Stone Forest is open to visitors throughout the year. However, it’s important to note that weather conditions can vary, so it’s advisable to check the best time to visit based on personal preferences and the desired experience.

How much time is recommended to explore the Stone Forest?
The amount of time needed to explore the Stone Forest can vary depending on individual preferences and interests. However, a typical visit can range from a few hours to a full day.

Is there accommodation available near the Stone Forest?
Yes, there are accommodations available near the Stone Forest, ranging from budget guesthouses to more upscale hotels. Some visitors choose to stay overnight to fully immerse themselves in the beauty of the area.

Are there restaurants or food options in the Stone Forest?
Yes, there are restaurants and food options available within the Stone Forest Scenic Area. These establishments offer a variety of local cuisine and snacks to cater to visitors’ dining needs.