Applied Geology

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Applied Geology is geologic knowledge to solving geologic problem. In other words, application of various fields of geology to economic, engineering, water-supply, or environmental problems; geology related to the human activity.

Evaporation and Transpiration

The process through which water is transferred from the surface of the Earth (land surface, free water surfaces, soil water, etc.) to the atmosphere is called evaporation.During evaporation process the latent heat of evaporation is taken from the surface of evaporation.Therefore evaporation is considered as a cooling process. Evaporation from land surface, free water surfaces, soil water, etc. are of great importance in hydrological and meterological studies,

Elements of The Hydrologic Cycle

Precipitation Precipitation is the release of water from the atmosphere to reach the surface of the earth.The term ‘precipitation’ covers all forms of water being released by...


Introduction to Hydrogeology Water is a precious natural resource. Without water there would be no life on Earth. Two-thirds of our body...
Porphyry Deposits

Porphyry Deposits: General characteristics and modeling

The Basics Intrusion centered Spatially associated with porphyritic intrusions Dominantly related to a volcanic edifice Geometry reflects the intrusive system, structures, and host...
Hydrothermal alteration zones associated with porphyry copper deposit

Hydrothermal Alteration

What is alteration? Hydrothermal alteration is a complex process involving mineralogical, chemical and textural changes, resulting from the interaction of hot aqueous fluids with...

Ore Bearing Hydrothermal Fluids

The four most important considerations in the formation of ore deposits are: 1. Source and character of ore-bearing fluids. 2. Source of the...
Economically Important MetalConcentrations in Earth’s Crust

Economically Important Metal Concentrations in Earth’s Crust

Consider Canada, one of the world's largest manufacturers. Canada has the largest mining regions in the world and has been one of the biggest...

10 Most Powerful Earthquakes in Earth History

10. Sumatra Earthquake (2012)– 8.6 on 11 April ,2012 at 15.38 local time, Indian Ocean earthquakes were magnitude 8.6 undersea that near of Indonesian city...

Engineering Geology

Engineering geology is defined by same engineering problems solved to use of application of geological knowladge. Enginering geology understanding of geologic phenomena ,geologic problems...
Oil Extraction Process


Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule, CH4. Methane is a part of a homologous collection known as the alkanes, which include unmarried bonds handiest.In natural chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an natural compound consisting absolutely of hydrogen and carbon:620 and accordingly are group 14 hydrides.
Oil Extraction Process

The Petroleum System

The Petroleum System consists of a mature source rock, migration pathway,reservoir rock, trap and seal. Appropriate relative timing of formation of these elements and the processes of generation, migration and accumulation are necessary for hydrocarbons to accumulate and be preserved.