Home Minerals Barite


Barite, also known as barium sulfate (BaSO4), is a mineral that has a wide range of industrial applications due to its unique properties

The barium sulfate barite takes its name from the Greek word barys, which means “heavy” a reference to its high specific gravity. It has also been called heavy spar. Barite crystals are sometimes tinged yellow, blue, or brown. Golden barite comes from South Dakota. Crystals are well formed, usually either prismatic or tabular. Cockscomb (crested aggregates) and desert roses (rosette aggregates) of crystals are common. Transparent, blue barite crystals may resemble aquamarine but are distinguished by their softness, heaviness, and crystal shape. Barite can also be stalactitic, stalagmitic, fibrous, concretionary, or massive. Barite is a common accessory mineral in lead and zinc veins. It is also found in sedimentary rocks, clay deposits, marine deposits, and cavities in igneous rocks.

Name: From the Greek for weight, in allusion to the high specific gravity.

Polymorphism & Series: Forms a series with celestine.

Mineral Group: Barite group.

Associaton: Fluorite, calcite, dolomite, rhodochrosite, gypsum, sphalerite, galena, stibnite.

Chemical Properties of Barite

Chemical Classification Sulfate mineral, barite group
Chemical Composition BaSO4

Physical Properties of Barite

Color Colorless, white, light shades of blue, yellow, grey, brown
Streak White
Luster Vitreous, Pearly
Cleavage Perfect cleavage parallel to base and prism faces
Diaphaneity Transparent to opaque
Mohs Hardness 3-3.5
Specific Gravity 4.3–5
Diagnostic Properties white color, high specific gravity, characteristic cleavage and crystals
Crystal System Orthorhombic
Tenacity Brittle
Fracture Irregular/Uneven
Density 4.50 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.50 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Properties of Barite

Barite Mineral PPL and XPL
Type Anisotropic
Color / Pleochroism Visible
Optic Sign Biaxial (+)
Birefringence δ = 0.012
Relief Moderate

Barite Occurrence and Formation

Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) occurs naturally in a variety of geological settings and is formed through several different processes. Its occurrence and formation can be understood in the context of these geological settings:

1. Sedimentary Deposits:

  • Bedded or Stratiform Deposits: Barite often forms as bedded or stratiform deposits in sedimentary rocks. These deposits are typically associated with marine environments, where barium-rich fluids mix with sulfate-rich waters. Over time, the barium sulfate precipitates out and accumulates as layers or beds of barite.
  • Evaporite Deposits: Barite can also occur in evaporite deposits, which form when saline water bodies (such as shallow seas or saline lakes) evaporate, leaving behind minerals like barite, gypsum, and halite (table salt).

2. Hydrothermal Veins:

  • Barite can be found in hydrothermal veins associated with igneous and metamorphic rocks. In these settings, hot, mineral-rich fluids migrate through fractures in the Earth’s crust. As the fluids cool and the pressure decreases, they can deposit barite and other minerals in vein structures.

3. Replacement Deposits:

  • Barite can replace pre-existing minerals in rocks through a process called metasomatism. In this case, barium-bearing fluids react with the minerals in the host rocks, replacing them with barite.

4. Residual Deposits:

  • In some cases, barite can be found as a residual mineral in weathered rocks. As surrounding minerals break down and weather, barite can remain behind as a more resistant mineral.

5. Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) Deposits:

  • MVT deposits are characterized by the association of various sulfide minerals and barite. These deposits are often found in carbonate rocks and are formed by the circulation of hydrothermal fluids.

6. Hot Springs and Geothermal Systems:

  • Barite can precipitate from hot springs and geothermal systems when hot, mineral-rich waters come into contact with cooler surface waters.

The formation of barite typically requires the presence of barium (usually derived from the dissolution of barium-bearing minerals) and sulfate ions (often sourced from the oxidation of sulfide minerals or from seawater). The exact conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and chemical composition of the fluids, play a crucial role in determining the characteristics of the barite deposits, including their size, purity, and crystalline structure.

Barite deposits are economically significant due to their use in various industries, as mentioned earlier. The geological processes and conditions that lead to the formation of barite deposits vary widely, resulting in a range of deposit types and qualities found around the world.

Barite Application and Uses Areas

Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) has a wide range of applications across various industries due to its unique properties, particularly its high density, chemical inertness, and ability to absorb X-rays. Here are some of the primary application areas and uses of barite:

1. Oil and Gas Industry:

  • Drilling Fluids: Barite is commonly used as a weighting agent in drilling fluids used in oil and gas exploration. By adding barite to drilling mud, it increases its density, helping to control wellbore pressure and prevent blowouts.
  • Drilling Mud Additive: Barite also acts as a rheology modifier in drilling fluids, helping to control the viscosity and flow properties of the mud.

2. Medical Imaging:

  • Barium Sulfate Contrast Agent: Barium sulfate is used as a contrast agent in medical imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans. When ingested or introduced into the body, it enhances the visibility of soft tissues and allows for better imaging of the gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels, and other internal structures.

3. Paints and Coatings:

  • Filler in Paints: Barite is used as a filler in the production of paints, coatings, and primers. It enhances opacity, improves durability, and provides a smooth finish.

4. Plastics and Rubber:

  • Filler in Plastics and Rubber: Barite is added to plastics and rubber products to increase their density, improve flame resistance, and enhance their mechanical properties.

5. Construction Industry:

  • Concrete Aggregate: In the construction industry, barite can be used as an aggregate in concrete to increase its density and radiation shielding properties in applications where radiation protection is needed, such as in hospitals and nuclear facilities.

6. Glass Manufacturing:

  • Glass Industry: Barite is used in the glass industry as a fluxing agent, which helps reduce the melting temperature of glass and improves its clarity and brightness.

7. Paper and Pulp Industry:

  • Paper Coating: Barite is used as a filler in paper and pulp production to improve the brightness, opacity, and printability of paper products.

8. Chemical Industry:

  • Chemical Manufacturing: Barite is used as a source of barium in the production of various chemicals, including barium carbonate, barium chloride, and barium hydroxide.

9. Cement Industry:

  • Cement Additive: In some cement formulations, barite is used as a mineral additive to increase density and improve drilling performance in oil well cementing.

10. Radiation Shielding: – Due to its high density and ability to absorb X-rays and gamma rays, barite is used in the construction of radiation shielding materials in nuclear power plants, hospitals, and laboratories.

11. Brake Linings: – Barite can be used as a friction material in brake linings and clutch pads due to its high density and heat resistance.

These are just a few examples of the many applications of barite across different industries. The versatility of barite arises from its unique combination of properties, making it valuable in sectors ranging from energy exploration to healthcare and manufacturing.

Barite Mining Sources, Distribution

Barite Mineral

Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) is mined from various sources around the world, and its distribution is widespread. The availability of barite deposits depends on geological conditions and the presence of barium-rich minerals. Here are some key sources and distribution areas of barite mining:

1. United States:

  • The United States has historically been a significant producer of barite. Major producing states include Nevada, Missouri, Georgia, and Texas. The vast deposits in Nevada, particularly in the Battle Mountain-Eureka area, have been a major source of barite.

2. China:

  • China is one of the largest producers of barite in the world. It has abundant deposits in provinces like Guizhou, Hunan, and Hubei.

3. India:

  • India has substantial barite reserves, with major mining activities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Rajasthan.

4. Morocco:

  • Morocco is known for its significant barite production. The deposits are primarily located in the Atlas Mountains.

5. Mexico:

  • Mexico is another major producer of barite, with deposits in several states, including Chihuahua, Sonora, and Durango.

6. Iran:

  • Iran has significant barite resources, particularly in Kermanshah and Fars provinces.

7. Kazakhstan:

  • Kazakhstan has large barite deposits, and it has been a notable producer of barite.

8. Canada:

  • Canada produces barite mainly from deposits in British Columbia and Newfoundland and Labrador.

9. Australia:

  • Australia has barite deposits in various states, including New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia.

10. Thailand: – Thailand has barite resources in several regions, and it is a minor producer.

11. Nigeria: – Nigeria has substantial barite deposits in states like Benue, Cross River, and Nasarawa.

12. Peru: – Peru also has barite deposits, and mining activities occur in regions like Huánuco.

13. United Kingdom: – The UK has historically produced barite, with significant deposits in Scotland.

These are some of the key countries and regions where barite mining and production occur. The distribution of barite deposits is closely tied to geological formations, and different deposits may have varying qualities and characteristics. Barite mining typically involves the extraction of the mineral through drilling and excavation, and the extracted ore is then processed to meet the specific needs of various industries, as outlined in previous responses.

It’s important to note that the availability and accessibility of barite deposits can change over time due to factors such as market demand, economic conditions, and environmental regulations. As a result, the prominence of certain mining regions may evolve over the years.


  • Bonewitz, R. (2012). Rocks and minerals. 2nd ed. London: DK Publishing.
  • Handbookofmineralogy.org. (2019). Handbook of Mineralogy. [online] Available at: http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org [Accessed 4 Mar. 2019].
  • Mindat.org. (2019). Barite: Mineral information, data and localities. Available at: https://www.mindat.org/
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