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Mineral Deposit

Mineral deposits are the concentrations of metals or other minerals composed of various geological processes. Our focus is on metals.About half of the known elements in the world are occurs of metals. The term metal is a chemical element having two or more characteristic physical properties (opacity, ductility, malleability, fusion) of metals and also having good thermal and electrical conductors. Some mineral species melt more easily than others. These are called ore minerals.Ore minerals are formed after some special geological processes. Because they tend to condense in small rock masses, these are called mineral deposits. The mineral deposit is not only related to ore minerals. They always have valuable minerals with them. These are called gangue minerals. An ore deposit rich enough to work with profits is called an ore deposit and is called ore minerals plus gangue ore in an ore deposit.


Note. Ore deposits are an economic term and the beds are a geological term.

All factors affecting the mining, processing and transportation of ore must also be considered. Such factors include a form of deposit, depth under the surface, geographical distance, access to transport, political stability of the region, and market factors such as the price of metals in world trade and borrowing costs. coinage As the market factors are constantly changing, a certain ore deposit may sometimes be an ore deposit, but at other times it is not economical and therefore may not be an ore deposit.

The ore deposits are found both in the rocks under the oceans and in the rocks forming the continents, but in fact the mined beds are found in the continental rocks. (The mining of oceanic deposits lies in the future.) The thickness of the continental crust is 35 to 40 kilometers on average and the mantle below the crust. Mineral deposits can occur in the manto, but it is not possible to discover them with today’s technology.

Bingham Canyon in Utah (USA) Copper mine

Mineral Deposit Types

Mineral deposits are metallic or hard rocks, deposits (metals such as Au, Ag, Cu Pb, Zn, Ni or Co, the dominant commodity, energy mineral deposits (including coal and uranium deposits) and industry mineral deposits (including mineral products of this kind), sand, gravel, zeolite, phosphate etc.

“Mineral deposit types” are groups of mineral deposits having similar geologic characteristics, geologic environments of occurrence, and geologic processes of formation (Guilbert and Park, 1986; Cox and Singer, 1986; Bliss, 1992). There are different mineral deposits depending on their formation style.

  • Magmatic deposits are sediments consisting of direct magmas, such as Ni-sulphide residues containing layered mafic attacks.
  • Types of magmatic hydrothermal deposits consist of liquids thrown from crystallizing  magmas and include species porphyry, skarn and polymetallic replacement deposits.
  • The types of hydrothermal deposits consist of heated water circulating in the crust; Common hydrothermal types include volcanogenic massive sulfide, epithermal, polymetallic vein and Carlintype sediment-host Au deposits.
  • Supergene deposits consist of surface and groundwater, which aerates and redistributes metals from an existing mineral stock.
  • Residual sediments are formed by natural erosion of the rocks, which are used to remove most of the rock constituents and cause the enrichment of the economic components in the highly depleted rock remains; These include deposits such as bauxite Al and laterite Ni. Plaster deposits are formed by sediment accumulation of eroded dense minerals. rocks or mineral beds and placer Au and beach sand contain Ti beds.

Metals used in industrial application are divided into two classes. Geochemically abundant. They are larger than 0.1 percent of the weight of the Earth’s crust, aluminum, iron, magnesium, manganese and titanium etc. The other geochemically scarce metals are copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver etc.

Primary mineralogy

Primary minerals are often referred to as ore minerals. These are the original formation of deposits.In order for the mineral to be an ore mineral, it must pass some tests. First, the concentrating processes based on the physical properties of the mineral include magnetic separation, gravity separation and flotation.  Second is melting , it releases the metal from other elements that it chemically binds to the mineral.

Iron Ore Mineral

Secondary minerals

Secondary minerals are those that form at or near the ground surface as mineral deposits are exposed by erosion or mining and weathered by ground waters, surface waters, and the atmosphere. Depending upon their compositions and solubilities, secondary minerals can be beneficial, by restricting access of weathering agents to sulfides, or detrimental, by storing acid and metals in a readily-released form.

Amethyst on Veracruz gangue Mineral

Host Rock

The rock within which ore deposit occurs

  • Volcanic or pyroclastic rocks
  • Plutonic or subvolcanic rocks
  • Ultramafic rocks
  • Carbonate rocks
  • Sedimentary rocks
  • Evaporitic rocks

Wall rock or country rock

The rock which surrounds the ore deposit, in particular, the rock on either side of a vein

  • Volcanic or pyroclastic rocks
  • Plutonic or subvolcanic rocks
  • Ultramafic rocks
  • Carbonate rocks
  • Sedimentary rocks
  • Evaporitic rocks


Brian J. Skinner (2015Mineral deposit, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc, Access Date: Ocak 31, 2019

Plumlee, Geoffrey. (1999). The environmental geology of mineral deposits. Reviews in Economic Geology. 6A. 71-116.

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