Geographic coordinate system
The representation of each place on the Earth by numbers and symbols is called the geographical coordinate system.The science of mapmaking is called cartography. Maps are models of three-dimensional objects, ie flat-drawn models of objects such as seas, mountains and forests. For many years people have used maps to identify the country and city boundaries.
Cartographers use an imaginary grid of parallel lines to locate exact points on Earth. In this grid, the equator horizontally circles Earth halfway between the north and south poles. The equator separates Earth into two equal halves called the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere.
Lines on a map running parallel to the equator are called lines of latitude. Latitude is the distance in degrees north or south of the equator as shown in The equator, which serves as the reference point for latitude, is numbered 0° latitude. The poles are each numbered 90° latitude. Latitude is thus measured from 0° at the equator to 90° at the poles. Locations north of the equator are referred to by degrees north latitude (N). Locations south of the equator are referred to by degrees south latitude (S). For example, Syracuse, New York, is located at 43° N, and Christchurch, New Zealand, is located at 43° S.
The distance between each latitude is 111 km. The Earth is approximately 40000 km and the sphere is 360 ° degrees. The real distance on the surface of the Earth is 1.85 km per minute of latitude;
111 km with 60 km. A latitude minute can be divided in seconds;
The symbol ˝ is indicated by. Longitude is also divided into degrees, minutes and seconds.
The cartographers used longitude lines, known as meridians, to locate the east and west directions.
The main meridian represents 0 ° longitude. The location of the main meridian was accepted as the UK’s Greenwich.
Semicircles Unlike lines of latitude, lines of longitude are not parallel. Instead, they are large semicircles that extend vertically from pole to pole. For instance, the prime meridian runs from the north pole through Greenwich, England, to the south pole. The line of longitude on the opposite side of Earth from the prime meridian is the 180° meridian. There, east lines of longitude meet west lines of longitude. This meridian is also known as the International Date Line, and will be discussed later in this section
Latitude degrees covers relatively consistent distances. Distances However, longitude covered by degrees place. Longitude lines.
Thus, a degree about 111 km on the longitude equator poles 0 km.
Using coordinates Both latitude and longitude There is a need to determine the exact positions on Earth. For example, Charlotte North Carolina is located at 35 ° 14 N. measurement anywhere on earth 35 ° 14gisi along the northern latitude line. The same goes for Charlotte’s longitude; 80 ° 50 birW, it can be any point along the longitude pole To find Charlotte coordinates – latitude and longitude.
Time zones The world is divided into 24 time zones. Why 24 Worlds Takes About 24 Hours To Turn Once its axis. Thus, there are 24 times zones representing each one. a different clock. Because the world is constantly turning, The time is always changing. Every time zone 15 ° large, roughly corresponds to longitude lines. for Avoid confusion, but time zone limits Cities and towns are set up in local areas is not divided into different time periods.
Borrero B.,Hess F,S,.Hsu,J.,Kunze, G., Stephen A. Leslie ), Stephen Letro, Michael Manga, Len Sharp ( 2008 ) Glencoe Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe, Student Edition (HS EARTH SCI GEO, ENV, UNIV) 1st Edition, Earth Science,